Dysbacteriosis is a condition caused by a violation of the intestinal microflora associated with a change in the species composition of bacteria. The number of beneficial bifido and lactobacilli is reduced, and the number of pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms is increasing. Intestinal dysbiosis is not an independent disease. Often it is the result of other ailments (sometimes quite formidable). According to statistics, observed in 90% of adults.
In more detail about what kind of disease it is, what are the first signs and symptoms, as well as how to properly treat with diet and medications.
What is dysbiosis?
Intestinal dysbiosis (also dysbiosis) - this is a state of microbial imbalance on the body or inside it. With dysbiosis, the ratio of beneficial and opportunistic microorganisms is violated, for example, in the intestine or in the reproductive organs.
The intestines of an adult normally contain about 2-3 kg of various microorganisms (about 500 species). 60% of all microorganisms are settled in the digestive tract.
Microorganisms help digest food, synthesize vitamins, remove toxins and carcinogens, break down all unnecessary elements. The main representatives of the intestinal flora are aerobic lactobacilli and anaerobic bifidobacteria.
In the human body, three types of bacteria take part in the processes of digestion of food:
- beneficial (bifidobacteria, lactobacilli). Maintain the ratio of other bacteria in the stomach, prevent the development of allergic diseases, weakening of the immune system and many other negative effects on the human body. They also control the amount of harmful bacteria,
- neutral. They live in a certain place. Do not bring much benefit or harm,
- harmful (candida fungus, staphylococcus, streptococcus). They provoke various diseases and malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract.
The amount of each type of bacteria that live in the intestine is governed by the laws of natural selection: those who multiply strongly do not find food, and the extra ones die, or other bacteria create unbearable conditions for them to live. But there are situations in which the normal balance is changing.
The following factors can be the causes of inhibition of intestinal normoflora in case of dysbiosis:
- Taking certain medications (antibiotics, laxatives, immunosuppressants, hormones, psychotropic, secretolytics, adsorbents, antitumor drugs, tuberculostats, etc.),
- Improper nutrition, lack of necessary components in the diet, its imbalance, the presence of various kinds of chemical additives that contribute to the suppression of flora, interruptions in diet, a sharp change in the nature of the diet.
- The presence of any diseases of the digestive system (peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis, Crohn's disease, cirrhosis, celiac disease, pancreatitis, etc.),
- Parasitic intestinal diseases (ascariasis), secrete substances that destroy microbes of the normal intestinal flora,
- Past surgery on the intestines, stress, neurological disorders, as a result of which normal intestinal motility is disturbed.
Sometimes almost completely healthy people can suffer from dysbiosis. In this case, the reason should be sought in the characteristics of the profession, or in seasonal changes in nutrition.
Depending on the cause of the occurrence, intestinal dysbiosis syndrome in modern medicine is divided into several types.
- Dysbacteriosis that occurs in healthy people:
- Professional (violations occur due to harmful professional activities)
- Age (flora is disturbed due to aging of the body)
- Nutritional (associated with malnutrition)
- Seasonal (flora changes depending on the time of year, mainly in the cold season).
- acute (up to 30 days),
- protracted (up to 4 months): with clinical manifestations (continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations,
- chronic (more than 4 months): with clinical manifestations (continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis
The clinical picture of the development and course of dysbiosis depends on both the stage and the microbiological variant of the disorder.
Characteristic signs of dysbiosis in adults:
- Violations of the stool. Stool disorders with dysbiosis are one of the most common and characteristic symptoms. Most often manifests itself in the form of loose stools (diarrhea). With age-related (in the elderly) dysbiosis, constipation most often develops, which is caused by a decrease in intestinal motility (due to a lack of normoflora).
- With severe processes of decay and fermentation, which are observed only in 25% of patients, the composition, shape and color of feces are disturbed. It becomes foamy, liquid, acquires a bright color and an acidic smell. There may be a burning sensation in the anus.
- a change in the smell of feces (it becomes sharply putrid or acidic),
- increased gas formation (gases are offensive and odorless, sonorous and not),
- bloating of various intensities (it is more pronounced in the evenings, may be aggravated after some foods),
- Dyspeptic disorders: nausea, vomiting, belching, decreased appetite, are the result of impaired digestion,
- The intestines do not empty completely.
- Rotten aftertaste, belching.
Symptoms that appear with dysbiosis, not everyone can be observed, these are individual signs. About half of those suffering from this disorder feel nothing but loose stools or constipation.
With dysbiosis, digestion is most affected. Since food in the intestine is initially broken down by bacteria, and only then absorbed into the blood. Without the help of microorganisms, the body cannot absorb many nutrients. Therefore, nausea, vomiting, loose stools appear.
Stages of dysbiosis in adults
There are such stages of the disease:
With intestinal dysbiosis, other symptoms and manifestations are possible, but they will most likely relate to complications of the disease or to an exacerbation of concomitant pathologies. Directly, these symptoms are not associated with a violation of the intestinal microflora. For example, signs of hypovitaminosis and vitamin deficiency are possible. Vitamin deficiency is due to the fact that it is not absorbed normally in the intestines.
With intestinal dysbiosis, symptoms are observed as with colitis, enterocolitis, gastritis, inflammation of the large, small intestine. The doctor’s task is to make the correct diagnosis by eliminating the abovementioned pathologies of the digestive system.
It is difficult to diagnose dysbiosis without analysis. Symptoms of the disease are very similar to the symptoms of other diseases. To make a diagnosis, the doctor must have diagnostic results. After collecting patient complaints and palpation, the specialist prescribes 2-3 necessary procedures.
An accurate diagnosis will help:
- Fecal analysis. The most specific technique for laboratory diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis is analysis and feces bacteriosis.
- Clinical blood test - shows the presence of inflammation and possible bleeding in the intestine. With severe dysbiosis, anemia is noted - a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood.
- Colonoscopy Allows you to assess the condition of a segment of the intestine up to one meter long.
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity. With its help, you can detect concomitant pathologies.
- Fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy. It consists in examining the mucous membrane of the stomach, esophagus and duodenum, which is carried out using an endoscope.
- X-ray of the intestine. To detect pathological changes, a contrast agent is used during the procedure.
Treatment of dysbiosis in adults
With a mild degree of imbalance in the intestinal microflora, eliminating these causes with the help of a balanced diet, taking prebiotics or probiotics may be enough. In severe violation, dietary supplementation is also indicated along with complex antimicrobial therapy.
How to treat intestinal dysbiosis? Treatment measures consist of:
- elimination of excessive bacterial seeding of the small intestine,
- restoration of normal microbial flora of the colon,
- improving intestinal digestion and absorption,
- restoration of impaired intestinal motility,
- stimulation of the reactivity of the body.
For the treatment of dysbiosis, drugs are used that help restore normal intestinal flora. Usually, one of the following groups is selected:
- Antibacterial drugs are necessary primarily to suppress the excessive growth of microbial flora in the small intestine. The most widely used antibiotics are tetracycline, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones (tarid, nitroxoline) and metronidazole.
- Bacteriophages (intestinal bacteriophage, staphylococcal bacteriophage, pyobacteriophage, coliprotein bacteriophage, etc.),
- Antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, etc.),
- Probiotics for dysbiosis (sporobacterin, enterol, cereobiogen, bactisubtil, etc.).
- Antifungal agents. They are prescribed when an increased amount of yeast is detected in the intestinal contents.
- Enzymes are prescribed in case of severe digestive disorders. Mezim tablets 1 tablet 3 times a day, before meals. In order to improve the function of absorption, essentiale, legalon, or karsil are prescribed, since they stabilize the membranes of the intestinal epithelium. The propulsive function of the intestines is improved by imodium (loperamide) and trimebutin (debridate).
- Sorbents are prescribed for severe signs of intoxication. Activated charcoal is prescribed for 5-7 tablets per 1 time, for 5 days.
Prescribe medications for dysbiosis, determine their dosage and duration of admission can only be a doctor. Self-medication threatens complications.
With long-term antibiotic treatment, it is imperative to include in the therapy a special diet containing foods rich in beneficial bacteria, antifungal and immunostimulating, as well as antihistamine therapy.
|The degree of dysbiosis||Adult treatment|
|2||With 2 degrees of dysbiosis, it is recommended: |
|3||With 3 degrees of intestinal dysbiosis, drug treatment is as follows: |
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis is prescribed in a complex manner depending on the degree of the disease. Since the disease develops under the influence of many factors, it is important to eliminate the cause of its development, otherwise taking probiotics will not give a positive effect. The elimination of foci of infection and chronic diseases is the main task in the treatment.
Diet and proper nutrition
There is no special diet for each person, just follow some rules, avoid unwashed fruits, low-quality foods and take food every three hours in small portions. It is important to eat hot liquid food every day: soup, broth.
The basic principles of proper nutrition for dysbiosis:
- regular meals at the same time,
- eating warm food (within 25-40 degrees) and avoiding too cold or hot food,
- Avoidance of aggressive and spicy foods
- thorough chewing of food,
- eating frequently (every two and a half hours) and in small portions,
- Drink plenty of water, but not during meals (so as not to interfere with the digestion of food).
Subject to a diet, the following foods are allowed to be consumed:
- white or rye bread - not fresh, but yesterday,
- soups on low-fat broths with mashed cereals and vegetables,
- steamed or steamed meat dishes,
- lean meats
- low-fat boiled, steamed, stewed or fried fish without breading,
- vegetables (excluding cabbage, legumes and mushrooms) in boiled, baked form or steamed,
- fruits and berries as part of jelly, compote, mashed potatoes or mousse,
- baked or raw grated apples,
- low-fat dairy products,
- butter in small quantities,
- spice-free sauces,
- all drinks except alcoholic, carbonated, kvass and fruit drinks.
Along with the diet, probiotics and prebiotics can be prescribed to patients. These drugs improve bowel function and restore a healthy flora.
Traditional medicine, if proven means are used correctly, can improve the condition and alleviate the symptoms of the disease. But it can be used only as an addition to the main treatment prescribed by a doctor.
As a folk treatment, the following are allowed:
- plants giving an antiseptic effect: diluted with water pomegranate and rosehip juice, strawberries, raspberries,
- the analgesic effect is obtained by mint extract, chamomile tea, decoctions of St. John's wort,
- have an astringent effect, anti-inflammatory blueberries, bird cherry, beets.
Folk methods include the use of the following tools:
- Oak bark . A decoction of oak bark has an astringent effect and helps with diarrhea, often accompanying dysbiosis. A tablespoon of raw materials, filled with 250 ml of boiling water, simmer on low heat for a quarter of an hour. The liquid is cooled, filtered and taken in half a glass up to 3 times a day.
- Garlic. It contains antibacterial compounds that destroy pathogenic microflora and prevent the development of putrefactive processes. To prepare the medicine, it is necessary to crush a clove of garlic in a mortar and pour it with a glass of low-fat kefir. Every day, drink 2 cups of the resulting drink.
- A useful and tasty cure for dysbiosis is a mixture of sunflower seeds, pumpkin and walnut kernels. Well-dried ingredients must be ground in a coffee grinder and daily take 2 tablespoons of the obtained powder, washed down with heated water.
- Serum. Sold in stores or left after cooking homemade cottage cheese. Heated whey is drunk in the morning on an empty stomach for 1 month in a glass.
- In case digestion is accompanied by bloating in your stomach. Pour 4 tablespoons of dill seeds with a glass of hot water, insist for 2 hours, then strain and drink during the day every 2 hours.
- On the basis of propolis honey: a teaspoon of such honey should be diluted in a glass of warm water or broth of wild rose and taken 2 times a day after meals for 1.5 months.
- The simplest options for herbal decoction are eucalyptus and mint. For the preparation of the first 3 tbsp. dry eucalyptus poured 500 ml of boiling water. For the second recipe, boiling water is taken 2 times less - 250 ml. Eucalyptus broth is drunk in a quarter cup 3 times a day, and mint in 3 quarters of a cup 4 times a day. The course of treatment is designed for 14 days.
Herbal treatment is possible only in case of mild dysbiosis. In other cases, alternative methods are only an addition to the main treatment prescribed by a specialist.
Preventive measures include following the recommendations for proper nutrition, hygiene and sanitary-hygienic processing of products.
The main preventive measures for adults are as follows:
- healthy eating
- taking antibiotics exclusively as directed by a doctor,
- timely treatment of diseases of the digestive system.
To get rid of dysbiosis and prevent further relapses, it is most effective to use an integrated approach. At the first symptoms, be sure to seek help from a gastroenterologist. Be healthy and always watch your lifestyle!
Brief description of the disease
Intestinal dysbiosis is a common phenomenon that some doctors consider a disease, while others are just a dysfunction resulting from a different pathology or lifestyle. In both cases, we are talking about a violation of the intestinal microflora, which has unpleasant symptoms and is fraught with various complications and consequences.
Intestinal biocenosis is the variety in the large intestine of microbes that are present in certain quantities in every healthy person and are the norm. Microorganisms perform many important functions. Bacteria for the intestines are the usual "inhabitants."
Their total weight in this organ in an adult is approximately two to three kilograms. The number of species of microorganisms reaches five hundred. The vast majority of microbes "live" in the colon. Other departments have a minimum. All intestinal microorganisms are conditionally divided into beneficial and pathogenic bacteria. The first group includes:
- E. coli.
Pathogenic flora includes:
- Candida mushrooms
There are relatively few harmful (or optional) bacteria. In a healthy person, they "sit quietly," because immunity does not allow them to "protrude". Their presence in this state is normal and necessary for a certain balance of forces.
Microbial diversity is extremely important for the body, because it performs protective functions, synthesizes vitamins, lowers cholesterol, helps processed foods to be absorbed into the intestinal wall, and at the same time activates metabolic processes.
The essence of dysbiosis
Dysbacteriosis is the antonym of normbiocenosis. With it, the balance of microflora is disturbed. There are fewer beneficial bacteria, their activity is reduced. Putrefactive bacteria (conditionally pathogenic), on the contrary, multiply rapidly, suppressing their “neighbors”.
Extremely adverse health processes begin.
Deficiency of lactobacilli and other beneficial microorganisms leads to digestion, a decrease in immunity, and a slowdown in metabolic processes.The body lacks nutrients, weakens, becomes vulnerable.
Sometimes you can hear the term gastric dysbiosis. It is a mistake, because there are not so many microorganisms in the digestive organ that could play a significant role. It is also wrong to look for differences and similarities between dysbiosis, dysbiosis. It is in this case the same thing.
What triggers dysbiosis
Imbalance in microflora is always caused by certain factors. The pathogenic process itself does not start. The causes of dysbiosis in which beneficial microorganisms die can be:
- digestive enzyme deficiency
- weak intestinal muscles that are not able to normally push food,
- increased acidity or alkali level in the body,
- lack of substances that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria or the abundance of those that kill them,
- parasites that "occupied" the intestines.
It is possible to cure dysbiosis only knowing what provoked it. The factors listed above become a consequence:
- various gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, ulcer),
- infections (viral, fungal, parasitic, bacterial),
- congenital or acquired disorders of the anatomical structure of the digestive tract,
- an abundance of junk food,
- bad ecology
- physical overstrain, which often cause intestinal problems in men,
- abuse of alcohol that kills the microflora,
- long-term antibiotic treatment,
- constant stress, strong nervous overstrain (this factor is one of the leaders among the causes of dysbiosis in women),
- a sharp change in diet.
- allergic reactions.
Often, severe dysbiosis occurs in people who have flown from one climatic zone to another. In a short travel time, the body does not have time to rebuild without consequences. In such cases, treatment of dysbiosis with serious drugs is not necessary. After adaptation of the body, normal microflora will be restored. If the signs are pronounced, you can provide first aid in the form of symptomatic treatment.
Varieties of dysfunction
There are such types of dysbiosis as acute and chronic. The first takes place in most cases. With adequate treatment, the microflora is restored in a few weeks, all symptoms disappear.
The chronic type is much less common. It develops when it is not possible to defeat dysbiosis for months, and sometimes for years. As a rule, certain factors impede recovery. For example, a serious incurable disease, constant stress or alcoholism. Chronic dysbiosis leads to serious consequences for the body.
There is also a classification of pathology according to the type of pathogen. There are fungal dysbiosis, proteus, staphylococcal type and associative. The easiest and safest course in the protean. The most complex type is considered associative.
Warning! It is difficult to determine which species takes place by one symptom. A quality examination is needed.
Stages of Dysbiosis
Like most dysfunctions, dysbiosis has several stages. The manifestations of the disease, as well as treatment, depend on them. The development of pathology occurs in stages:
- Dysbacteriosis of 1 degree. A decrease in the number of E. coli (Escherichia) is recorded. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are present in full force.
- Dysbacteriosis of the 2nd degree. The number of Escherichia is significantly reduced. There is a slight deficiency of bifidobacteria. The number of pathogenic microorganisms is growing.
- Dysbacteriosis of 3 degrees. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are much smaller than necessary. Pathogenic flora provokes disruptions in the intestines.
- Dysbacteriosis of 4 degrees. Bifidoflora is killed. Almost complete absence of lactobacilli. The intestine undergoes serious destructive processes.
The easiest way to fix the problem is at the very beginning.Normalization of the intestinal microflora in the later stages will take a lot of time and effort. In this case, the disease has time to cause significant damage to the body.
Advice! At the first clinical manifestations, you should consult a doctor.
An imbalance of microflora can not be felt for a long time. Symptoms of dysbiosis in adults are often absent in the first stages, appearing only when everything is already quite running. And this is the insidiousness of the disease. In addition, the signs of dysbiosis are identical to the manifestations of many other pathologies. There are no specific ones.
Dysbiosis is characterized by:
- Bad breath. Sometimes this is the only sign of dysbiosis. It is explained by putrefactive processes in the intestines.
- Diarrhea is a common symptom of dysbiosis. It can occur four to six times a day, or even more often. Danger of dehydration. Regular diarrhea is a sure sign that the intestines are not all right. Feces can be foamy, it is difficult to wash them off the walls of the toilet
- Constipation is less common than diarrhea. Usually they affect elderly patients, whose intestinal motility is significantly slowed.
- Unstable stools alternate with constipation and diarrhea. Feces can be very offensive. An unusual color of feces is sometimes observed.
- A rumbling in the abdomen is heard more often in the initial stages. Indicates intestinal problems. Over time, flatulence intensifies, a person literally bursts with gas, his stomach increases. Frequent belching of air is observed.
- The pains are localized in the intestinal region. The stomach is especially sore with constipation, with severe flatulence due to stretching of the intestinal walls. The unpleasant sensation is enhanced by pressure.
- Nausea, vomiting, discomfort inside, bad taste in the mouth. These, typical for many gastrointestinal diseases, signs can appear with dysbiosis. Sometimes heartburn occurs.
- With dysbiosis, food is poorly absorbed, the body does not receive enough “building materials”, which often leads to weight loss.
- Deficiency of nutrients in advanced stages is manifested by symptoms such as apathy, drowsiness, depression. A person almost constantly feels a general weakness. It does not pass even after a night's rest. The patient wakes up already tired.
- An increase in temperature is accompanied by dysbiosis rather rarely. Such a symptom can make itself felt if there is a strong intoxication of the body. Fever is possible with severe exacerbations of chronic dysbiosis.
- Sometimes after eating the usual foods, allergic reactions can occur. Namely - a rash, flushing of the skin, itching. Such reactions are explained by a decrease in the protective properties of the body due to disturbed microflora.
Vitamin deficiency resulting from dysbiosis can be manifested by brittle nails, dull hair, as well as pallor and dry skin, jamming in the corners of the lips. The more serious the stage, the more pronounced are the symptoms that indicate not only a disturbed microflora, but also a general deterioration in health.
2. Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults
Drug therapy of DC is aimed at restoring the balance of intestinal microflora, destroying pathogenic microorganisms, improving the overall functional state of the digestive tract and increasing the protective functions of the body. The treatment regimen is always individual and depends on the clinical picture of the patient’s health status.
Mandatory in the list of drugs are prebiotics, probiotics, antiseptics, bacteriophages and immunomodulators.
The composition of prebiotics includes indigestible constituent particles of food. The components stimulate the growth and activity of certain groups of beneficial bacteria. Due to their impact, there is an improvement and restoration of the functional state of the digestive tract.Prebiotics are not digested in the small intestine. An additional effect of these substances is aimed at suppressing pathogenic microflora.
Examples of prebiotics:
Probiotics - a group of drugs containing special types of microorganisms. Substances have a detrimental effect on harmful bacteria and accelerate the recovery of intestinal microflora. Means can be monocomponent, multicomponent and combined.
Separate varieties of probiotics are antagonists and synbiotics.
Features of different types of probiotics:
- monocomponent preparations consist of one type of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacterin, Bifindumbacterin),
- multicomponent preparations include several types of beneficial bacteria (Bificol, Bifiform, Linex),
- combined agents combine strains and symbiotic communities of the main bacteria, which are immune to antibiotics (Rioflora immuno),
- synbiotics are ready-made medicines based on prebiotics and probiotics (Laminolact, Bifidobak),
- antagonists incorporate beneficial microorganisms that are capable of suppressing conditionally pathogenic microflora (Bactisporin, Enterol).
Intestinal antiseptics are a type of antibiotic. Unlike other types of drugs, this group of drugs quickly affects pathogenic microorganisms and actively suppresses their vital processes. When using antiseptics, there is no negative effect on the intestinal microflora. Means destroy only pathogenic microorganisms.
Examples of antiseptics:
An accurate diagnosis of dysbacteriosis can only be made by a professional doctor, who should be consulted at the first alarming symptoms. At the initial stage of the survey, the following will be carried out:
- conversation with the patient
- medical history
- visual inspection with palpation.
However, only on the basis of data obtained as a result of these actions, a treatment regimen for dysbiosis cannot be developed. Be sure to use laboratory research methods that will refute or confirm the presence of a problem, determine the type of pathogen, stage of the disease.
To date, the main method for diagnosing dysbiosis remains a bacteriological analysis of feces. Although it is not perfect (it is expensive, takes a lot of time, does not exclude errors), but there is no better method yet.
It is important to correctly prepare for the analysis, to properly collect the material. A few days before the procedure, it is necessary to exclude from the diet everything that can affect the microflora. These are dairy products:
- fermented baked milk,
- sour cream,
- any alcohol (especially beer),
When collecting material, it is advisable to take an average portion of feces, and not from the toilet, but from a clean piece of paper. Place a piece in a special sterile cone. Deliver to the laboratory no later than two hours after collection.
Attention! Sometimes you have to take an analysis for dysbiosis several times. This is due to the fact that during the collection of material or during the study, errors are allowed that affect the result.
In order to diagnose diseases that have caused or result from dysbiosis, other research methods are used. This is a blood test, ultrasound, MRI, CT. Sometimes, an x-ray with contrast is prescribed to determine the state of the intestine. It supplements the results of microbiological analysis of microflora.
Normalizing the situation with dysbiosis in most cases is not so simple. A comprehensive treatment is needed, aimed not only at eliminating the symptoms, but also at eliminating the causes. Its main tasks are:
- inhibition of growth in the number of pathogenic microorganisms,
- stimulation of the reproduction of beneficial bacteria,
- increase immunity.
Today in pharmacies are quite inexpensive, but effective drugs for dysbiosis. Their use greatly facilitates the fight against sore. However, even the best remedies for dysbiosis will not help, if you do not adjust the diet, do not lead a healthy lifestyle. Poor food, bad habits will aggravate the situation.
In some cases, treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults is not required. Microflora, disturbed after stress, a series of holidays or a change in climate, is restored by itself. Treatment of dysbiosis after antibiotics may be limited to drugs based on live bacteria.
Complex therapy is needed. It takes not one or two days, but several weeks. As a rule, medications for dysbiosis can be taken at home. Only occasionally are hospital conditions required.
A distinctive feature of drugs from the group of bacteriophages is the ability to penetrate into the bacterial cell and its gradual destruction. The basis of such funds are special groups of viruses. For the body, such components are harmless. Their action is directed only to specific types of pathogenic bacteria.
Examples of bacteriophages:
- Bacteriophage streptococcal,
In the treatment of dysbiosis, an important role is played by drugs to improve microflora. These are products containing live bacteria. Their common name is probiotics. In those cases when a large number of pathogenic organisms were sown, treatment should begin with their elimination. Otherwise, beneficial bacteria will have nowhere to settle. Therefore, it is necessary to drink antibiotics for dysbiosis. Recommended medications include:
- Furazolidone is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. It is considered a powerful antimicrobial agent. Activates the immune system.
- Metronidazole has an antiprotozoal and antimicrobial effect. It is widely used for abdominal infections.
- Chloramphenicol is considered a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It is especially effective in identifying enterococci.
If a fungal type of dysbacteriosis is diagnosed, patients are prescribed a drug to combat Candida fluconazole yeast. It is not an antibiotic, but is considered an antifungal agent.
Doctors try to use all antibacterial drugs very carefully, preferring intestinal antiseptics. They eliminate pathogenic flora, while not touching healthy. New generation intestinal antiseptics include:
Another drug commonly used for dysbiosis is Enterofuril. After antibiotic and antiseptic therapy, the free space is populated with beneficial bacteria contained in probiotics. For example, live lactobacilli for the intestines are found in Lactobacterin.
Bifidobacteria - in Bifidumbacterin. Both of these funds are single drugs in tablets to restore intestinal microflora. Although there are other forms of release of these drugs. In particular, candles with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.
Along with monocomponent preparations, multicomponent ones with different types of bacteria can be prescribed. Effective remedies from this group include, for example, Bifiform. There are also combined probiotics containing beneficial and pathogenic organisms - Acipol, Bifilis. Linex is used to stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria. Bilaminolact, Ecoflor have a similar effect.
Activated charcoal is prescribed to remove toxins from the body. Apply it should be limited. To the means of similar action also include Polyphepan, Polysorb. In case of dysbiosis, prebiotics stimulating the growth of healthy microflora are relevant. These substances are found in foods.Special drugs may be prescribed - Hilak Forte, Dufalac (syrups) or Bactistatin in capsules.
Treatment of dysbiosis should be comprehensive. It is aimed at eliminating the root cause, which often becomes a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The drugs used depend on the specific pathology. It can be:
- Omez has a pronounced antiulcer effect.
- Mezim is an enzyme agent. It is prescribed for serious digestive disorders.
- Pancreatin is used for pancreatic diseases. Contributes to better digestion of food.
- De-nol is indispensable for gastritis. It has an astringent and enveloping effect.
If signs of dysbiosis are pronounced, symptomatic treatment may be required. So, for example, diarrhea is eliminated by Loperamide. This drug normalizes stool, but has absolutely no effect on the intestinal microflora. Pain is relieved by analgesics. They fight constipation with a laxative.
Important! Symptomatic treatment is not able to eliminate the cause, therefore it is carried out exclusively during complex therapy.
The purpose of using immunomodulators in the treatment of DC is to increase local immunity. In most cases, such drugs are prescribed at the final stage of therapy. It is forbidden to take them yourself.
When used correctly, immunomodulators fix the effect of treatment and create a good prophylaxis of repeated deviations in the state of intestinal microflora. The digestive tract becomes less susceptible to negative factors.
Examples of immunomodulators:
3. Diet for dysbiosis
Correction of the diet is a mandatory step in the treatment of DC. A special diet at the initial stage of pathology can completely eliminate the problem. The list of medicines in this case will be minimal. Unhealthy foods that can have a negative effect on the digestive system (causing flatulence, excessive gas formation, irritation of the mucous membranes, bloating, violation of the bowel movement and other deviations from the digestive tract are completely excluded from the diet).
The basic principles of the diet:
- dishes should only be prepared by cooking, steaming, stewing,
- fatty, fried, salty, spicy dishes are excluded from the diet,
- eating 5-6 times a day,
- nutrition should be balanced, fractional,
- alcohol is strictly prohibited
- you can’t eat fresh vegetables and fruits,
- it is forbidden to introduce legumes, mushrooms, canned goods, sausages, fatty meats and fish into the diet.
Treatment of severe dysbiosis
Diet for severe DC should be observed not only until the recovery period of microflora, but also for the purpose of prevention. Eliminate a complicated form of pathology only by diet correction will not work. Therapy is carried out by a combination of diet and special groups of drugs. A severe form of DC in most cases is accompanied by the development of vitamin deficiency and anemia. A sufficient amount of vitamins and beneficial elements must be present in the patient's diet.
To replenish their supply, special vitamin complexes are additionally prescribed.
4. The rating of drugs for dysbiosis
Among the assortment of pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of dysbiosis, there are several varieties that are widely used in medical practice. These drugs have established themselves as effective agents for the restoration of the microflora of the digestive organs. Most of them are suitable for use by adult patients and children.
Video on the topic: Scheme for the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis after antibiotics (in adults).
Lactobacterin is a drug based on live lactobacilli.The medication normalizes the digestive tract, restores microflora and increases local immunity. The drug is suitable for use by pregnant women, as well as young children. Additionally, the drug has a beneficial effect on metabolic processes in the body. Lactobacterin is available in the form of tablets, solution, powder and suppositories. The price is 80 rubles.
Diet and folk remedies for dysbiosis
Nutrition for dysbiosis plays an important role. Recovery is largely dependent on him. The purpose of the diet is to protect the intestines from negative influences (mechanical, thermal). Food should be steamed, stewed or boiled. It should be taken on a schedule - often, but little by little. You can eat:
- low-fat varieties of fish, meat,
- heat-treated vegetables, fruits, berries (except grapes, bananas, sweet apples),
Diet for intestinal dysbiosis in adults excludes:
- food full of preservatives
- fast food,
- ice cream,
- condensed milk
- most foods that cause flatulence
- semolina and rice porridge,
Folk remedies for dysbiosis are often based on food. For example, it is proposed to use raspberry, blueberry, pomegranate, cranberry, strawberry juice as antiseptics. The carminative effect is provided by dill, caraway seeds, on the basis of which decoctions and infusions are prepared. To get rid of dysbiosis, it is recommended to eat more garlic and Jerusalem artichoke.
Herbal treatment is widely used. For example, with diarrhea, fixing decoctions of their oak bark are prepared. They help to stop the pain of mint, calendula, St. John's wort. Fighting constipation with enemas based on a decoction of chamomile.
Enterol belongs to the category of antidiarrheal agents used in the treatment of dysbiosis. The medication has antitoxic and antimicrobial effects, improves the enzymatic function of the intestine. The main forms of release are capsules and powder. The drug is suitable for treating children from one year of age (the contents of the capsule can be removed, dissolved in water). Indication for the appointment of Enterol is diarrhea of any etiology. The price is 300 rubles.
Dysbacteriosis in children
Dysbacteriosis in a child is more common than in an adult. Especially when it comes to babies. The development of pathology is facilitated by the unformed digestive system, the almost complete absence of its own immunity. There is a higher risk of infection in artificially infants.
Dysbacteriosis is manifested in children with frequent loose stools or, conversely, its long absence, anxiety, problems with sleep, loss of appetite, prolonged crying. Such babies can greatly underweight. Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in children are not always pronounced. Deviation can only be manifested by a slight rumbling in the abdomen. And to ignore this symptom is not worth it, because the situation may worsen.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in children depends on the age of the young patient. Artificial breasts are transferred to special mixtures, kefirchik is introduced into the diet. If the baby’s nutrition is mother’s milk, then mother is advised to review his menu. Most often, the reasons are in its errors.
Older children, as well as babies suffering from serious dysbiosis, can be prescribed antibiotics, drugs containing enzymes. But you need to adjust the power in any case.
Important! Particular attention should be paid to ensure that the child's body receives enough vitamins.
So, dysbiosis is not an independent disease, but a consequence of another pathology or an incorrect lifestyle. If you care about prevention - the intestines need to be protected.Eat normally, do not abuse alcohol, try not to take antibiotics without special need, wash your hands before eating, treat all diseases in a timely manner, undergo regular medical examinations, and avoid foci of epidemics. For young children, the best preventive measure is breastfeeding.
If dysbiosis nevertheless made itself felt, it is necessary to proceed to its treatment immediately. The chronic form is fraught with such serious complications as secondary intestinal infections, diverticulitis, enterocolitis, sepsis, peritonitis.
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The body with it constantly loses the necessary substances, which leads to a deterioration in the general condition - both physical and moral. Acute dysbiosis can lead to dehydration. This is especially true and dangerous for young children who may even die.
You can not ignore the disease. With a competent approach, dysbiosis is successfully treated, the prognosis is favorable.
Bifindumbacterin contains live bifidobacteria. The drug has activity against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Components from its composition increase the body's resistance, normalize digestive and metabolic processes, restore the balance of intestinal microflora. It is permissible to use the drug for dysbacteriosis provoked by infections and pathologies of a bacterial nature. The price is 60 rubles.
Linex is a drug based on lebenin (live lactic acid bacteria), designed to restore intestinal microflora. You can use the drug in the treatment of pathology, as well as for the purpose of prevention. Forms of release - capsules and powder. The drug is suitable for use during pregnancy, as well as for young children. The drug destroys pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, restores the enzymatic activity of the digestive system, increases local immunity. The price is 290 rubles.
Probifor belongs to the group of probiotics. The drug restores the balance of the intestinal microflora, normalizes the condition of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, and increases the body's resistance to infections. Available in capsule form. With dysbiosis, the drug eliminates the symptoms of diarrhea, flatulence, takes part in the regulation of metabolic processes. Permissible use during pregnancy. The price is 360 rubles.
Polysrb is included in the category of universal sorbents. The drug is particularly effective in the treatment of dysbiosis caused by toxic effects on the body. The main effects of the drug are a detoxification and sorption effect. Components from the composition of the powder bind and remove not only toxins from the body, but also many types of harmful microorganisms. Additionally, the drug restores the balance of intestinal microflora. The price is 130 rubles.
The action of Hilak Forte is aimed at actively restoring the microflora of the digestive tract. The drug stimulates the synthesis of intestinal epithelial cells, restores pH, normalizes the balance of electrolytes, water. It is permissible to use the drug for infection of the gastrointestinal tract. An additional effect is aimed at stopping digestive system disorders, destroying some pathogenic microorganisms. The price is 170 rubles.
Iberogast belongs to the category of herbal remedies intended for the treatment of disorders in the digestive system of various etiologies. The drug has anti-inflammatory properties, eliminates spasms of smooth muscles, tones intestinal motility. Taking the medication provides microflora recovery. You can not use the drug to treat children under eighteen years of age. The price is 170 rubles.
More about dysbiosis
With intestinal dysbiosis, it is called dysbiosis in another way, the balance (eubiosis, eubacteriosis) of beneficial and conditionally pathogenic (bad) microorganisms (microbes) in the intestine is disturbed. Dysbacteriosis (microbiocenosis) can be either an independent disease or accompany chronic gastritis, ulcers and other diseases of the digestive tract.
Normally, about 500 species of different microorganisms (2-3 kg) are present in the body of an adult. About 60% of all these microorganisms live in the digestive tract. These microorganisms are involved in the digestion of food, help synthesize vitamins, and remove toxins from the body. The main bacteria present in the intestinal flora are lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.
Three types of bacteria are involved in digesting food:
- useful - lactobacilli, bifidobacteria. They help maintain the balance of other bacteria (including harmful ones), prevent the development of allergic reactions, weakening of the immune system and other negative effects on the body,
- neutral. They are located in a certain place, do neither harm nor good,
- harmful - streptococcus, staphylococcus, candida fungus. These bacteria are provocateurs of various diseases and malfunctions in the digestive tract.
You should know that officially there is no such disease, but what we call dysbiosis is actually a functional disorder. As a rule, dysbiosis is a sign of another disease of the digestive tract.
Enterofuril is an antimicrobial agent with a wide spectrum of action. The drug destroys the membranes of microbial cells, helps to accelerate the recovery of microflora, reduces the toxic effects of pathogenic microorganisms on the digestive system. Forms of release - capsules and suspension. The second type of medication is intended for younger patients. The price is 240 rubles.
5. Candles for pathology
For the treatment of dysbiosis, you can use not only drugs in the form of tablets, capsules, powder, but also candles. Suppositories differ in pharmacological properties, compositions and the principle of use. Suppositories can be vaginal or rectal. For the treatment of DC, the second category of drugs is used. A distinctive feature of medicines of this group is the local effect.
Medicines penetrate the focus of the pathological process faster, without affecting other body systems.
Examples of suppositories for the treatment of dysbiosis:
- antibacterial suppositories (Viferon, Levomycetin, Kipferon, Genferon),
- suppositories containing probiotics (Lactonorm, Bifindumbacterin, Lactobacterin, Bifinorm).
What is intestinal dysbiosis?
Digestion is a complex process. , in which not only enzymes produced by the body take part, but also millions of bacteria. They help to synthesize vitamins and other valuable substances from food, take part in the breakdown and assimilation of individual elements of food. Some bacteria prevent the fermentation of food, which lingers in the digestive system for a long time.
The weight of all bacteria that make up the intestinal microflora is several kilograms. Among them there are useful ones - bifidobacteria and lactobacteria, as well as conditionally pathogenic ones (those that are useful in a minimal amount, but with an increase in the colony can provoke various diseases). Bacteria regulate each other's numbers : beneficial inhibit the reproduction of harmful, thereby maintaining bacterial balance and harmony.
If the activity of beneficial bacteria decreases, or pathogenic microorganisms multiply so quickly that it is impossible to restrain the growth of their colony, skew occurs in the intestinal microflora. So there is dysbiosis - a violation of the intestinal microflora with an increase in the number of pathogens.
This condition occurs in men and women, in adults and children. Children are most susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis (their microflora and immunity are still being formed, therefore they are unstable) and elderly (against the background of the presence of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract).
Signs of dysbiosis in adults
The clinical picture of the disease also depends on the severity of the pathology in the intestine.
The main symptoms of dysbiosis are:
- in feces, the consistency and composition changes - it becomes semi-liquid and has a greenish color, it can foam, have a sharp (putrid) smell, perhaps a burning sensation or itching in the anus,
- bloating, pain in the stomach, gas formation (flatulence) increases,
- there is a feeling of a full intestine,
- rotten taste in the mouth, belching, whitish coating on the tongue,
- feeling of incomplete bowel movement,
- abdominal discomfort, rumbling,
- sudden weight loss. This is due to insufficient digestion of food,
- nausea and headache are constantly present
- general malaise and weakness.
Also, all these symptoms, as a rule, are accompanied by fever, there is a decrease in the antitumor, antiviral defense of the body, a decrease in local immunity, the synthesis of vitamins B12 and pantothenic acid is reduced.
All signs of dysbiosis are individual, often the patient has no signs except loose stool (diarrhea) or constipation, it happens that the initial stage proceeds even without visible intestinal disorders (without diarrhea).
These symptoms of dysbiosis are persistent, but can occur from time to time after eating certain foods. It is possible to suspect dysbiosis if the clinical manifestations include several symptoms at once simultaneously with a duration of at least a week.
Features of dysbiosis in pregnant women
Due to the fetus being in close contact with his mother, any violation of the body's functions is also transmitted to him, which negatively affects his development. Therefore, before pregnancy, it is worth paying attention to the prevention of dysbiosis, undergo the necessary examinations. Otherwise, with dysbiosis in the process of bearing the fetus, problems may arise - a delay in the development of the fetus, since the intake of nutrients in the blood will decrease against the background of the disease.
Therapy consists of a diet and special medications prescribed by a doctor. Breastfeeding a child gives him the opportunity to avoid dysbiosis in infancy and reduce the likelihood of its occurrence in adulthood.
Adequate therapy of DC allows you to fully restore the state of microflora. If the pathology provoked complications, then at the initial stages of development they can be eliminated with drugs for symptomatic treatment. An integral part of the course of treatment is diet. In the absence of timely therapy, dysbiosis can cause serious complications. The consequence of the vital activity of harmful bacteria will be a violation of the functional state of the digestive tract, the development of inflammatory processes, the addition of additional infections and the spread of pathology to other body systems.
Dysbacteriosis provokes a decrease in immunity and vitamin deficiency. The body becomes weakened and susceptible to viruses and infections.
Video on the topic: How to treat dysbiosis with folk remedies.
How to treat dysbiosis in adults
The purpose of treatment depends on the cause of the disease. But therapy is always complex and includes a certain set of therapeutic measures:
- getting rid of excess bacterial contamination of the small intestine,
- digestion normalization,
- increase immunity
- elimination of an imbalance in the composition of microorganisms in the colon.
You should also follow a strict diet, which excludes products that cause gas formation and containing coarse fiber.
Drug treatment is designed to eliminate the symptoms of dysbiosis, restore normal intestinal microflora and adjust the immune status. The list of drugs in each case is prescribed by the doctor, often according to an individual scheme.
Symptomatic therapy is based on the use of antispasmodics (Drotaverinum, Papaverinum, No-shpa), and pharmacotherapy of diarrhea and constipation (Loperamide). Sometimes choleretic fees and enzyme preparations are prescribed (Pancreatin, Mezim).
In general, with complex therapy, the following groups of drugs are used to suppress pathogenic flora, the treatment of which takes place according to a certain scheme:
- antibacterial agents. They are prescribed only with the established form of the disease. It is very important to take into account the susceptibility of the microorganism to antibiotics,
- bacteriophages. These are viruses that can penetrate into a bacterial cell and dissolve it (by killing a harmful bacterium),
- intestinal antiseptics. Fluoroquinolones (Ofloxacin), nitrofurans (Furazolidone) are used,
- prebiotics. These are substances in which live bacteria are present, they stimulate the development of healthy microflora and inhibit the development of pathogenic,
- plant antiseptics. They actively affect staphylococci. For this, the alcohol solution "Chlorophyllipt" diluted in water is used.
- immunomodulators. They are used to enhance local and general immunity (tincture of echinacea).
- multivitamin complexes to compensate for the lack of vitamins ("Multi-Tabs").
Probiotics incorporate microorganisms that have a positive effect on the intestinal microflora. For the normal functioning of the intestine, it is necessary to populate it with beneficial bacteria.
All probiotics can be divided into several groups:
- monocomponent. They contain one of the types of bacteria - bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, or colibacteria (Bifidumbacterin, Lactobacterin),
- multicomponent. They consist of a combination of several types of bacteria - coli, bifidum and lactobacilli (Bificol, Linex),
- combined. The composition contains symbiotic communities of the main bacteria and strains that are immune to many antibiotics (Rioflora Immuno),
- synbiotics. These are combinations of pre- and probiotics, ready-made complex medicines (“Bifidobak”),
- antagonists. Microorganisms that suppress the development of opportunistic flora - antidiarrheal drugs (Enterol, Baktisporin, Bactisubtil).
Prebiotics are indigestible components of food that contribute to improving health by stimulating the growth of certain groups of bacteria that live in the colon. They help to improve the metabolic activity of natural microflora, but also inhibit the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
Effective prebiotics include indigestible disaccharides - these are lactulose (Goodluck, Lactusan and others), lactitol (Exportal), and lactic acid - Hilak forte. Prebiotics are also found in lactic acid products, corn flakes, artichoke, asparagus, bananas and some others.
Antibiotics (“Levomycetin”) are prescribed in cases where an excess of pathogenic microflora causes an imbalance in absorption and leads to digestive disorders, as well as to combat the development of infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
In severe cases, tetracycline antibiotics, penicillins, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are prescribed. In milder situations, antimicrobials are prescribed.
The course of treatment is for a period of not more than 7-10 days. After taking antibiotics or antibacterial drugs, take sorbents (Enterosgel syrup).
In most cases, only prebiotics and probiotics are prescribed to combat dysbiosis: beneficial intestinal bacteria can independently adjust their work and defeat the pathogenic flora.
Alternative methods of treatment
Traditional medicine, with the correct use of folk proven means, improves the condition and alleviates the symptoms of the disease. But alternative methods are used only as a complement to the main treatment at home.
As folk methods of treatment are used:
- plants with antiseptic effects: pomegranate, wild rose, wild strawberry, raspberry,
- plants with a painkiller effect - mint, chamomile, St. John's wort,
- with astringent or anti-inflammatory - blueberries, bird cherry, beets.
Olga, Kazan. Sometimes tormented by constipation, the doctor advised Loperamide to follow a diet. I did not expect that everything would be so simple. After treatment, I follow the diet. The body is lighter and feel better and the intestines work like clockwork.
Anna, Moscow. Due to completeness, I often went on diets, not always successfully, as in the end it broke, and it all started all over again. As a result, digestion is upset, the diagnosis is dysbiosis. The doctor prescribed a diet, but probiotics as well. Now, not only got rid of dysbiosis, but also began to lose weight. It turns out that the fault was digestion. You need to eat right.
Dysbacteriosis - a scourge of the 21st century
Recently, experts have been worried. An increasing number of patients are seeking symptoms of dysbiosis for help. The disease causes serious controversy and is called the scourge of the 21st century.
The concept of "violation of the intestinal microflora" cannot be outlined by strict classification medical framework. With the disease, a qualitative and quantitative violation of the composition of the natural microflora of the intestinal tract occurs, which leads to a metabolic and immunological shift in the body.
Most ignore the first symptoms, considering them innocent, ordinary poisoning or overeating. This leads to serious complications. Doctors of various specialties claim that improper treatment of dysbiosis forms numerous pathological processes.
Why has the disease become so common in recent years? Our lifestyle has changed a lot, and not for the better. Violation of the natural microflora is caused by the abuse of fast food, bad habits, poor ecology, sedentary lifestyle. Such factors provoke not only the development of dysbiosis, but entail a whole range of serious diseases that have become a real scourge of economically developed countries.
The main causes of dysbiosis
Important information: an imbalance of natural microflora never arises on its own. This is a consequence of the manifestation of various endogenous or exogenous factors. Treatment requires an integrated approach with a thorough diagnosis.
The causes of dysbiosis are many, the main ones are:
- The use of any medications that may have a negative effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. These can be antibiotics, antiviral, antibacterial, hormonal, sulfanilamide drugs, as well as laxatives, histamine blockers, antacids, immunosuppressants.
- Surgery develops an iatrogenic stage of dysbiosis.
- Chaotic, unbalanced nutrition. The risk group includes everyone who does not eat healthy foods without getting the right amount of components for balanced body function. Intestinal disease often occurs when there is a malfunction in the usual diet, a sharp transition to a new diet, eating emulsifiers, additives, dyes with food.
- The normal functioning of the intestine can be affected by stressful situations, nervous strain.This is the so-called "stress dysbiosis".
- Digestive tract diseases: pancreatitis, duodenal ulcer, stomach, hepatitis, cirrhosis, gastritis with high acidity and others.
- Impaired metabolism.
- Intolerance to certain foods by the body.
- Acclimatization - disruptions occur throughout the body, including a violation of normal microflora.
- Diseases of the endocrine system.
- Impaired peristalsis.
- Trichomoniasis, helminths, giardiasis and other parasitic infestations contribute to the population of pathogenic microbes.
- Oncological disease.
- Age-related changes - older people often have impaired functioning of the correct intestinal microflora.
If a completely healthy person falls ill with dysbiosis, the reason should be sought either in a change of residence or in the features of professional activity.
Symptoms, signs of disturbance of microflora
Signs of the disease depend on the stage. With dysbiosis in adults, 4 stages are distinguished, with symptoms characteristic of each.
1 degree - Compensated, with mild symptoms, the easiest. Often does not require treatment. Character reduction by two orders of magnitude of protective endogenous flora. The quantitative composition of E. coli is slightly exceeded, lactoflora and bifidoflora are normal.
2 degree - subcompensated. In the intestinal flora, both quantitative and qualitative changes occur, the growth of opportunistic microorganisms is increased. The general condition of the body is disturbed, although there are no significant clinical manifestations in the intestine. There may be constipation or diarrhea, which often alternate.
3 degree - decompensated, symptoms are manifested pronounced. Signs of intestinal dysfunction are increasing, aerobic microflora is actively multiplying. Symptoms are moderately pronounced - pain in the intestine occurs, constipation, diarrhea appear. If you do not start treatment on time, stage 4 occurs.
4 degree - mainly requires inpatient treatment. Symptoms are more pronounced, a person begins to lose weight dramatically. The number of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli is reduced. Body temperature rises, stool is frequent, vomiting is added. There is a risk of developing sepsis.
Symptoms can manifest themselves in different ways and depend on the characteristics of the body accompanying the disease:
- Decreased, poor appetite or complete lack,
- Unstable stool (diarrhea) - for more than 2 days,
- Increased salivation,
- Bad breath from the mouth
- Burning sensation in the anus
- Cracks in the tongue, stomatitis,
- Soreness in the abdomen of a bursting, aching nature,
- In the stool there are bloody patches, it with green mucus, foams,
- Depressed mood
- Vomiting, nausea.
What complications can be
With a violation of the intestinal microflora, the intake of beneficial bacteria begins to be absent. The body cannot fully digest food. As a result, useful substances do not arrive. If bacteriosis is ignored, improperly treated, serious complications can occur.
- Iron deficiency anemia, hypovitaminosis.
- Allergic reactions.
- The development of inflammatory diseases of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, intestines.
- The entry into the blood of pathogens of infection, which leads to sepsis.
- Chronic enterocolitis, causing ulcers in the intestines and the gradual death of tissues.
- Peritonitis followed by suppuration.
- Pancreatitis, gastroduodenitis.
Attention! Untimely treatment can cause complete organ failure or death. If you suspect a dysbiosis, do not postpone a visit to a specialist.
Violation of the natural microflora requires proper, comprehensive treatment.The main thing is the elimination of pathogenic organisms, disturbing symptoms and the correction of dysbiosis with complete restoration of microflora. In addition, resistance to viruses of the body is increased and impaired motor skills are eliminated.
- Antibacterial drugs in the third and fourth stages. There are many medications, they should be taken only on the recommendation of a gastroenterologist. Mostly these are drugs of the imidazole, tetracycline, quinolone, cephalosporin group. In order to prevent damage to the intestinal fungi, antifungal agents are simultaneously prescribed. Brevity, treatment, doses are determined for each patient individually, taking into account the condition and associated diseases. Self-medication is fraught with complications!
- Enterosorbents - aimed at eliminating flatulence in an effective, safe way. It acts much better than hydrocolonotherapy without causing leaching of microflora.
- Drugs that relieve symptoms of the disease. Symptomatic therapy allows you to lead a healthy lifestyle during the treatment period, facilitating overall well-being. Such a drug group includes laxatives, antispasmodics, antidiarrheal drugs, anti-inflammatory, digestive polyenzymes and others. In more severe forms of dysbiosis, agents are prescribed that reduce motility.
- For cracks in the anus or the manifestation of hemorrhoids, enemas with vegetable oil, intrarectal suppositories with Novocain, Anestezin or microclysters with a solution of Rivanol, Furacilina are used.
It is important to know: if the symptoms do not resolve within 5-7 days, you need to consult a doctor for an additional examination.
The main treatment is probiotics.
Biological preparations are not only the most effective way to restore the normal intestinal microflora, but also the prevention of dysbiosis. The drugs have a high content of bacteria that contribute to the cessation of the development of growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
Probiotics based on lactobacilli are available in suppository form (suppositories), powder (Biobactone, Acylact), tablets (Lactobacterin). Well tolerated with antibiotics.
Preparations based on bifidobacteria are in powder (Bifidumbacterin), tablets (Bifidumbacterin), in the form of suppositories. Not compatible with antibiotics.
There is another type of probiotic that combines bifidobacteria and lactobacilli simultaneously (Linex, Florin Forte). Practically have no contraindications, are compatible with antibiotics, have no age limit
A specific set of bacterial groups is present throughout the human body. By the way, far from always these are harmful bacteria. Moreover, for each specific place, whether it is the oral cavity, intestines, throat or vagina, this set of microorganisms is different. Moreover, for each person, these combinations are often individual. Doctors call this optimal set of bacteria eubiosis, less often intestinal biocenosis, and a violation of its composition, quantity or properties - dysbiosis. We will figure out a specific form of dysbiosis - a violation of the composition of the intestinal microflora, leading to a decrease in the number of beneficial bacteria that live on the intestinal walls.
Dysbacteriosis is a condition or disease (the discussion about the relevance of the last term in this case has not been closed so far), which is manifested by a fairly standard list of symptoms depending on the complexity of the course. At the same time, the causes of this gastrointestinal pathology can radically differ from each other in various cases. Unfortunately, far from always people are well aware of intestinal dysbiosis, symptoms, and treatment of this disease in adults.
Diagnostic methods for dysbiosis
When a patient addresses the above complaints, the doctor collects information from the patient’s words, performs intestinal palpation, and assigns fecal analysis.The analysis is a dilution of one gram of feces in a special solution, after which sowing is performed on a nutrient medium. If the laboratory assistant sees a decrease in the number of bifidobacteria, and at the same time, an increase in the number of staphylococci or fungi, then there is intestinal dysbiosis.
Among other diagnostic methods can be noted:
- Clinical blood test - shows the presence of inflammation and possible bleeding in the intestine. With severe dysbiosis, anemia is noted - a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood.
- Colonoscopy Allows you to assess the condition of a segment of the intestine up to one meter long. It is the introduction of a probe into the anus, so the procedure is very unpleasant for most patients. In some cases, it can be replaced by sigmoidoscopy.
- Irrigoscopy. A contrast agent is injected into the intestine, after which an X-ray examination is performed. The picture shows the condition of the colon, changes in its tissues, mucous membrane. This diagnostic method is more accurate than colonoscopy.
- Gastroscopy. It is required when determining the causes of the development of dysbiosis. If, according to certain signs, it is possible to suspect that an imbalance is associated with a digestive disturbance in the stomach and duodenum, then gastroscopy will prove or disprove it.
How is intestinal dysbiosis manifested in women?
What are the first signs of dysbiosis? It is difficult to answer this question, because in the early stages there is no manifestation of the disease. Symptoms appear when the balance of beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is significantly impaired, there is an inflammatory process.
Signs that a person has a disturbed microflora:
- Digestive disorders - upset stool, lack of appetite, nausea.
- Flatulence - rumbling and increased gas formation, which are especially amplified in the presence of fermentation.
- Abdominal pain, especially before defecation. The stomach also hurts against stress, after eating fatty and indigestible foods.
- Manifestations on the skin: itching and peeling, dryness, acne, increased activity of the sebaceous glands, clogged pores. The skin on the face can be very oily and on the body dry, with the appearance of exfoliating scales.
- Apathy, muscle weakness, irritability.
- Sleep disturbances.
- Headaches are a frequent sign of intoxication.
- Allergic reactions.
- Bad breath.
- Stomatitis and sores around the mouth.
- Increased fragility of nails and hair.
- With a strong violation of microflora, temperature can rise.
The consequences of dysbiosis
If the disease is not treated, it can lead to complications. Among the most common:
- Chronic intestinal dysbiosis, which is accompanied by a constant digestive disorder. An imbalance in the flora can cause minor errors in the diet, stress, medication, and a decrease in immunity.
- Lack of certain trace elements and vitamins, which occurs due to digestive disorders.
- Chronic intestinal inflammation.
- Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum.
- Sepsis, which develops with severe dysbiosis and infection.
- The appearance of other inflammatory diseases of the digestive system (gastritis, duodenitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, etc.)
Features of intestinal dysbiosis in pregnancy
The fetus is in very close contact with the mother, and any somatic and functional disturbance in the woman’s body is fraught with trouble for the baby. That is why it is important to pay comprehensive attention to your health before pregnancy - to prevent dysbiosis, undergo all necessary examinations.
Otherwise, a decrease in the intake of nutrients in the blood resulting from dysbiosis can delay the development of the fetus.
Diagnosis of dysbiosis in pregnant women is carried out by collecting information from the words of the patient and conducting a biochemical analysis of feces.Functional diagnosis of the digestive tract during this period (colonoscopy, irrigoscopy) is extremely undesirable.
Therapy includes a diet and the appointment of special drugs. It is important not to self-medicate and entrust the case to a general practitioner or obstetrician-gynecologist.
It is worth noting that breastfeeding a child allows him to avoid dysbiosis in infancy and significantly reduce the likelihood of its acquisition in adulthood.
Alternative treatment of intestinal flora disorders
Alternative methods of treatment for dysbiosis are used in the early stages, as well as as a supportive treatment. Folk remedies help reduce the growth of pathogens and create conditions for the propagation of beneficial bacteria.
Most commonly used:
- Garlic in its pure form or in combination with honey (single dose - 1 tsp., Take 2-3 times a day half an hour before meals). It has antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic effects.
- Herbal teas (chamomile, mint, fennel, etc.) help reduce the symptoms of dysbiosis.
- Rice decoction helps to restore the mucous membrane and create conditions for the growth of beneficial flora. Take 1-2 glasses a day, the course of treatment is 10 days).
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Can folk remedies help?
Folk remedies are effective in combating dysbiosis and are often a good alternative to medications. We offer the use of proven recipes of traditional medicine.
Mix in equal proportions plantain, chamomile, St. John's wort, mint. Pour boiling water (1 tablespoon a glass of water). Insist half an hour, mix with honey. Take tea every hour for 2 sips.
Combine half a teaspoon of hypericum, chamomile, serpentine root, immortelle, dried blueberries. Pour a glass of water, boil on low heat for 5 minutes. Insist 1 hour. Take 3 times a day before meals.
For breakfast, eat kefir mixed with prunes, dried apples, dried apricots and oatmeal.
Diet for dysbiosis, an approximate menu for a week
The diet for intestinal diseases is selected individually. However, there are general recommendations - food should be balanced, healthy. It is important not to overeat and not to use foods prohibited for the period of treatment.
A sample menu that helps restore intestinal microflora:
- Breakfast - rice porridge cooked on the water, in a grated form, a decoction of herbs or tea with sugar,
- Afternoon snack - low-fat cottage cheese, several crackers,
- Lunch - rice, buckwheat grated porridge with steam meatballs (meatballs) or low-fat broth with meat, fish and crackers, jelly,
- Dinner - grated rice porridge with steamed omelette, rose hip broth.
Products can be changed, with the exception of: sauerkraut, fried, seasonings, marinades, soda, canned food, mushrooms, fresh bread, sweets, cheese, legumes, garlic, bananas, fatty meat (fish), sorrel, bran, onions, plums, fats grapes.
Signs of intestinal dysbiosis are quite diverse and largely depend on what stage the development of the disease is at. The dysbacteriosis of the large intestine is divided into four stages according to the complexity of changes in microflora. Symptoms in adults for each stage have their own characteristics. Consider them for clarity in the form of a table:
|Stage||Symptoms of Dysbiosis||Remedies and possible consequences|
|First stage||At this stage of dysbiosis, symptoms are practically not observed. The manifestation of unsystematic rumbling in the abdomen is possible.||Dysbacteriosis of the large intestine of the first stage occurs by changing the regimen of food intake or the type of water used. Elimination of the cause leads to self-normalization of microflora.|
|Second stage||In the second stage of dysbiosis, symptoms include constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, bad taste in the mouth, nausea and vomiting.||With a violation of the intestinal microflora, such symptoms arise due to a significant change in the composition of microbes, which is provoked by the use of antibiotics or light food poisoning.|
|Third stage||There are pains in the intestines, intestinal absorption is disrupted and undigested food comes out with feces, the symptoms characteristic of second-stage dysbiosis are intensified.||Intestinal dysbiosis at this stage leads to the development of inflammation of the mucous membranes of the intestinal walls, impaired intestinal motility and digestion. To avoid serious consequences, medical intervention is required.|
|Fourth stage||Symptoms of dysbiosis of the fourth stage include signs characteristic of the previous stages. In addition, insomnia, apathy, and depression intensify.||With an almost complete change in the composition of the intestinal microflora, anemia and vitamin deficiency develop. If you do not carry out qualified treatment, then intestinal dysbiosis of the fourth stage can lead not only to digestive disorders, but also to serious infectious diseases.|
Classification of dysbiosis by the content of microorganisms in the feces
In addition, there is another classification of the complexity of the disease, based not on the symptoms of dysbiosis, but on the testimony of laboratory tests of feces in violation of microflora. For adults, it is divided into two groups. For clarity, we present it also in the form of a table:
|Up to 50 years||Stage 1||An underestimated to 10 5 -10 6 or an overestimated to 10 9 -10 10 an indicator of typical Escherichia, an underestimated to 10 5 -10 6 an indicator of lactobacilli and an underestimated to 10 6 -10 7 an indicator of bifidobacteria.|
|2 stage||An overestimated to 10 5 -10 7 indicator of opportunistic bacteria, an underestimated to 10 7 indicator of bifidobacteria and up to 10 5 lactobacilli.|
|3 stage||The rate of opportunistic microorganisms exceeds 10 7, the rate of lactobacilli is reduced to 10 5, bifidobacteria to 10 7.|
|After 50 years||Stage 1||The indicator of typical Escherichia went beyond 10 5 -10 10, the indicator of lactobacilli decreased to 10 4 -10 5, bifidobacteria - to 10 6 -10 7.|
|2 stage||An increase in the rate of opportunistic microorganisms rises to 10 5 -10 7, the indicator of lactobacilli decreases to 10 4, bifidobacteria to 10 6.|
|3 stage||The rate of opportunistic microorganisms exceeds 10 6 -10 7, the rate of lactobacilli is reduced to 10 4, bifidobacteria to 10 6.|
Visual analysis of feces in violation of intestinal microflora
Also, with dysbiosis, serious attention is paid to the nature of the pathology of the intestinal tract, which is quite simply determined by the type and color of feces, as well as by the condition of the stool.
Feces with a yellowish tinge indicate a large amount of undigested fiber in the feces and excess starch. Treatment of this condition must be carried out by changing the diet. Recommended protein foods (boiled meat, eggs, cottage cheese), which need to replace raw vegetables, carbohydrates and milk.
Very dark stool with strong stench demonstrates the presence of an alkaline reaction in the intestine, as well as undigested fiber food. In this case, meat and fat should be excluded from the diet, reimbursing calorie intake due to boiled vegetables and fermented milk products.
Intestinal dysbiosis, which is accompanied by diarrhea, must be eliminated with a diet based on "soft" food. Dishes in the diet should be neither hot nor cold, food should be boiled and mashed if possible.
Sometimes a violation of the intestinal flora is manifested by constipation. With this type of bowel disease, treatment involves the inclusion in the diet of foods with a lot of fiber: apples, cabbage, carrots, apricots. Such a diet should lead to an increase in the content of beneficial flora in the intestine.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults, prebiotics and probiotics
For the treatment of dysbiosis, prebiotic and probiotic drugs are used, which, according to assurances, perfectly cope with the restoration of disturbed intestinal microflora and relieve the symptoms inherent in dysbiosis. Despite the similarity of the names, in essence, prebiotics and probiotics are radically different drugs, and it’s worthwhile to understand what they are, in more detail.
Prebiotics are substances that, when they enter the intestines, have a positive effect on the growth and activity of the beneficial microflora there. Prebiotics are not absorbed by the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and, to put it in quite simple terms, are food for our beneficial microflora.
Among the pharmaceutical forms of prebiotics, Lactulose, Lactitol, Hilak Forte are most often prescribed. These are just the main names of the drugs, since there are dozens of their commercial names.
In addition, there are natural products that are prebiotics. Among them are dairy products, onions and garlic, and cereals.
Now for the probiotics. These drugs are a set of microorganisms necessary for the human body, which, when ingested in sufficient quantities, have a positive effect on the state of microflora. Moreover, their use is a rather controversial issue.
The fact is that the direct introduction of microorganisms in the form of probiotics has many conventions. Some microorganisms are needed in such quantities that it is difficult to get them from the outside; others are simply unrealistic to enter in a living form. Yes, and laboratory evidence of the real benefits of using probiotics is not so much.
Of the probiotics whose positive effect has been confirmed by research, and which are effective for the symptoms of moderate dysbiosis, in pharmacies you can find lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (Linex, Bifiform, Bifidumbacterin, Lactobacterin), Bacardi saccharomycetes, enterococci.
Dysbacteriosis in modern medicine
We already noted at the beginning that dysbiosis as a separate disease is classified only in the territory of the former Soviet Union. Western medicine designates it exclusively as a condition provoked by certain prerequisites.
Discussions about the correctness of this or that designation for ordinary people hardly make sense, but nevertheless we outline a number of interesting facts.
In the International Classification of Diseases (an official document of the World Health Organization) the diagnosis of "dysbiosis" does not exist. The diagnosis most similar to it is SIBR (syndrome of excessive bacterial growth). It is placed when more than 105 microorganisms are detected in a milliliter of aspirate taken from the small intestine.
Western medicine is rather skeptical about the analysis of feces to study the composition of microflora. According to doctors, such a study does not allow any conclusions to be drawn, since the concept of “normal flora” is very blurry and purely individual for each person.
In the territory of the former USSR, however, such a concept as intestinal dysbiosis is very popular. Symptoms, treatment of this disease - all this is a popular topic for discussion, both among specialists and among patients. However, do not forget that this term is very actively distributed by manufacturers of medicines. It is difficult to judge whether this is justified, or whether only commercial gain is hidden under this promotion.
Many doctors are very skeptical of treating microflora disorders with probiotics and bacteriophages. In their opinion, microorganisms obtained from outside have practically no chance to take root in the intestines, and bacteriophages are digested in the stomach and do not bring any benefits attributed to them.
So the only true conclusion about dysbiosis is the most controversial disease in modern medicine. But the symptoms, as well as the causes, are quite specific. Undoubtedly, it is necessary to deal with its treatment, and modern methods of therapy make it possible to do this with high efficiency.