Myocardial infarction

Signs of a heart attack in men and women may differ, which is associated with hormonal as well as constitutional differences. In men, obstruction of large-caliber arteries more often occurs, the lesion area during angiography is better visualized. Symptoms of the disease are manifold, which can complicate the diagnosis.

Myocardial infarction is an acute clinical form of coronary heart disease, when necrosis of one or more sections of the heart muscle occurs with a violation of the blood supply, followed by scar formation.

The site of the myocardium, which underwent necrosis and then scarring, does not recover and does not perform its functions, which worsens the work of the heart, and with a large size or location in a certain anatomical region, it causes the development of heart failure. Extensive heart attack often leads to death. How many live after a heart attack depends on the extent of damage to the heart muscle, the presence of complications, as well as the timeliness of the medical care provided and the patient's medical prescriptions.

Signs of precursors usually appear 3-7 days before a heart attack, but can occur from time to time and in a month and a half. As a rule, they are short-lived, and therefore often do not attract attention.

First of all, people at risk and their families should be aware of the possible symptoms of myocardial infarction and the rules of first aid.

What to do if you suspect a heart attack? If there are signs of a heart attack in men, the first thing to do is to call an ambulance, even if there is no full confidence in the diagnosis. Treatment at home is impossible, his attempts are likely to result in death or, at best, disability of the patient.

Symptoms of myocardial infarction in men

Forerunners may indicate the approaching heart catastrophe:

  • growing weakness, drowsiness, and increased fatigue,
  • feeling short of breath, shortness of breath,
  • numbness of the limbs, tingling in the limbs,
  • dizziness, which may be accompanied by a short-term loss of consciousness,
  • a sharp drop in blood pressure,
  • increased sweating,
  • cyanosis of the skin,
  • rapid pulse.

Such signs-precursors usually appear 3-7 days before a heart attack, but can occur from time to time and in a month and a half. As a rule, they are short-lived, and therefore often do not attract attention.

The first sign of a heart attack that has begun is a sudden intense pain behind the sternum in the area of ​​the heart, which lasts more than 10 minutes and does not stop with conventional painkillers. The pain can be compressive, burning, wavy, it gives to the arm, shoulder blade, jaw, perineum, and in men it often extends to the right half of the body. The pain attack is accompanied by disorientation, increased heart rate, sinking heart, dry cough, cold sweat, panic, fear of death. Sometimes patients without a history of hypertension have a history of high blood pressure.

In order to prevent a heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to abandon bad habits, avoid physical and mental overload, lead a mobile lifestyle, normalize body weight, observe a drinking regimen.

Myocardial infarction may have an atypical course. In the presence of atypical symptoms, a heart attack may be mistaken for another pathology and not diagnosed in a timely manner.This variant of the disease is more common in women, but also in men is not excluded, so it is advisable to know its possible signs.

Atypical manifestations of myocardial infarction can be: left jaw pain, toothache, pain in the neck, left half of the body, asthma-like suffocation, fever, heartburn, nausea and vomiting, stomach pain, pain in the arm (often in little finger).

Cardiac infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus can occur without characteristic pain behind the sternum or have no pronounced symptoms, manifested by weakness, depression and anxiety. Signs of a painless heart attack that is carried on the legs can be a sudden violation of the heart rhythm, a sharp decrease in blood pressure, pulmonary edema.

What to do if there are signs of a heart attack

For any signs indicating a possible impending heart attack, an ambulance team should be called immediately. Prior to her arrival, the patient is given first aid. The patient must be laid on a hard surface, to ensure access to fresh air. If the doctor has recommendations, the patient should be given medicines, for example, Nitroglycerin. If possible, measure the patient’s pressure (report the results to the doctor), prepare documents that may be needed in the future (passport, policy, results of previous studies). It is necessary to stay with the patient until the ambulance arrives.

Fast (no later than 12 hours from the onset of the first symptoms) medical assistance to a patient with a heart attack reduces the risk of adverse effects.

Atypical manifestations of myocardial infarction can be: left jaw pain, toothache, pain in the neck, left half of the body, asthma-like suffocation, fever, heartburn, nausea and vomiting, pain in the stomach, arm pain.

A disease can be recognized with absolute certainty only in a hospital, the diagnosis is confirmed on the basis of electrocardiography. For clarification, echocardiography and a biochemical blood test may be needed.

What can cause a heart attack in men

Recently, myocardial infarction is increasingly recorded in young people. If earlier signs of a heart attack were usually diagnosed in men over 60 years of age, then in recent decades, the disease has been increasingly recorded in men after 30 years. According to statistics, men in the age group of 40-60 are most vulnerable to heart attack. After 40 years and up to 60, the likelihood of a heart attack increases, then it begins to decline, and at 70 years, heart attacks are diagnosed much less frequently. The reason is that with frequent attacks of angina pectoris collateral vessels are formed, which are activated in case of circulatory disorders in the central arteries. In men older than 50 years, the incidence of heart attack is the same as in women in this age group.

The most common causes of heart attack in men include atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels. Often, the pathological process develops in the presence of a genetic predisposition, kidney disease (with damage to the renal glomeruli), arterial hypertension, endocrine disorders.

A passive lifestyle, chronic stress, an unbalanced diet, alcohol abuse, overweight, and high blood cholesterol contribute to a heart attack. One of the main risk factors for myocardial infarction is smoking, which leads to microtrauma of the lung tissue, subsequent thrombosis and obstruction of the coronary arteries. The risk of developing myocardial infarction increases in the spring-autumn period.

What to do if you suspect a heart attack? If there are signs of a heart attack in men, the first thing to do is to call an ambulance, even if there is no full confidence in the diagnosis.

Heart Attack Prevention

In the acute period of a heart attack, the patient should adhere to a strict diet, which will prevent the development of complications and avoid a second attack. It is advisable to coordinate the menu with your doctor.

Fractional nutrition is shown to patients with myocardial infarction (5-7 times a day in small portions). The menu of such patients is recommended to include vegetable soups, dairy products, cereals, vegetables, fruits and berries, pasta, low-fat meat and fish, seafood, weak broths, herbs, nuts, dried fruits. Fatty meats and fish, sausages, smoked products, strong coffee and tea, and alcohol are excluded from the diet. Limit salt intake. A diet should be observed not only during treatment and the rehabilitation period after a heart attack, but also adhere to proper nutrition in the future.

In order to prevent a heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to abandon bad habits, avoid physical and mental overload, lead a mobile lifestyle, normalize body weight, observe a drinking regimen.

Equally important for people at risk is the control of blood pressure and regular monitoring by a cardiologist. By-pass surgery, stenting or angioplasty can be used to prevent a heart attack while narrowing the lumen of the vessels.

Why heart attack develops more often in men than in women

There are more predisposing factors for the occurrence of MI in men than in women. Most often, the attack occurs in young and middle age. This is primarily due to the sedentary lifestyle of modern men. Many of them are engaged in office work, smoke and often drink alcohol, suffer from obesity or diabetes, so they sooner or later face a heart attack.

Other common causes of MI in men, not women, are as follows:

  • The tendency to rivalry, confrontation, scandals.
  • More frequent occupations by harmful types of work.
  • Lack of proper diet.
  • The presence of bad habits.

The more risk factors are determined in a patient, the higher the risk of developing primary or recurrent myocardial infarction.

The first symptoms of a heart attack

The disease is associated with a very sharp disturbance in the normal functioning of the heart, which causes dysfunction in many organs and systems of the body. Depending on the type of nervous irritation, one or another symptomatology is determined, among which pain is of primary importance. Most often, it is with her that myocardial infarction begins and a person understands that something is wrong with him.

Pain with MI can be of several types:

  • Zagrudnaya
  • By type of discomfort or pressure in the heart
  • Pain in other parts of the body.

Chest pain

This is the most common symptom of a heart attack in men and women. Most often, it develops slowly, starting with mild pain or discomfort. The sudden onset of serious symptoms is sometimes referred to as a “Hollywood heart attack,” since typical cases of MI are very often portrayed in movies and on television. In the traditional version of development, a heart attack is not so common.

Chest discomfort or pressure

Pain may be difficult to tolerate, but it is not necessary. Often there is a feeling of "fullness", squeezing or squeezing. With insufficient awareness, this condition can be mistaken for heartburn. An uncomfortable sensation often occurs in the left or central part of the chest. The feeling can last several minutes or drag on for half an hour or more.

Pain in other parts of the body

Pain or discomfort sometimes has a different location, because with myocardial infarction there is an incorrect distribution of blood in different organs, most often in the brain.The parts of the body that are above the waist are usually affected, including the upper abdomen, shoulders, one arm (possibly the left), or both, the back, neck, or jaw, sometimes even the teeth.

Other symptoms

Shortness of breath caused by difficulty breathing can be combined with chest pain or manifest without it. This symptom is often the first to indicate a developing violation of cardiac activity. Usually shortness of breath occurs when the patient performs increased physical activity or even at rest after a hearty dinner. Shortness of breath develops due to accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Also nearby people who are sick can hear wheezing at a distance.

Feeling severe fatigue for no reason is another common symptom in which appropriate precautions should be taken.

Another possible symptom is increased excretion of cold sweat. Additionally, nausea and vomiting may be felt, but these symptoms are more common in women than in men.

The more symptoms are determined, the higher the risk that there is a heart attack. But you should know that the disease can occur without any symptoms. Such heart attacks are called silent and are more common in elderly patients.

What is myocardial infarction?

Myocardial infarction is one of the most severe clinical forms of coronary heart disease (coronary heart disease), which is accompanied by the dying (necrosis) of the myocardial region resulting from the termination of blood delivery to one of the sections of the heart muscle. Such a violation of the coronary circulation, lasting for 15 minutes or more, occurs due to the complete or relative blockage of one of the branches of the coronary vessels by an atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus. As a result, myocardial cells die, and it is this affected area of ​​the heart muscle that is called myocardial infarction (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 - Myocardial infarction is an affected area of ​​the heart muscle.

Subsequently, the death of the myocardial site leads to oxygen starvation of the heart muscle and disruption of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system as a whole. The patient experiences severe pain in the sternum or heart, which cannot be eliminated even with nitroglycerin, and in the absence of timely medical care, this condition can lead to the death of the patient.

Signs of a heart attack that cannot be ignored

There are a number of symptoms of myocardial infarction that are not always so pronounced as to attract the attention of the patient or those around him. But to know them is extremely important, since the rapid provision of first-aid and medical care saves valuable time.

  1. Irradiation of pain (usually in the arm). Typical sternal pain does not always occur. Unpleasant sensations in the chest can be mild, while the main pain spreads to the arm, lower jaw, thoracic spine, etc.
  2. Dizziness. Patients with MI can feel a loss of balance or instant weakness. This condition is often combined with discomfort in the chest or behind the sternum.
  3. Pain in the lower jaw or throat. This symptom most likely does not have a direct relationship with damage to the heart muscle, but when determining it, you should definitely consult a doctor.
  4. Snore. Slight snoring is not particularly dangerous. If snoring becomes protracted, like breathing, then this may indicate sleep apnea.
  5. Relieving cough. This symptom is not characteristic of a heart attack, but with a frequent occurrence of dry cough and a history of heart disease, you need to pay attention to it.
  6. Swelling of the legs at the ankles and feet. The sign indicates heart failure, which in some cases develops immediately after MI.It occurs against the background of a weak pressure function of the heart, because of which blood begins to accumulate in the veins of the legs and its liquid part penetrates into nearby tissues, leading to their swelling
  7. Disturbed heart rhythm (arrhythmia). With a pronounced course of the disease, this symptom should alert, which will allow them to seek medical help at an early stage of MI. Sometimes arrhythmia occurs due to lack of sleep or the use of caffeine in large quantities. But at the same time, a similar symptom may indicate the presence of atrial fibrillation, in which an ambulance is required.

Video: Home doctor Myocardial infarction in men signs, first aid, prevention

Causes and risk factors for development

The underlying cause of myocardial infarction is a significant violation of blood flow in the arterial vessels of the heart, which leads to ischemia (insufficient blood flow) of one of the sections of the heart muscle and provokes the death of myocardial cells. Such a violation of coronary blood flow can develop due to the following diseases and conditions:

  1. Atherosclerosis of coronary and coronary vessels. It is blockage of these vessels by atherosclerotic plaques that is the most common cause of coronary blood flow disturbance and the development of myocardial infarction.
  2. Cramping of coronary vessels during smoking, taking drugs and unexplained causes.
  3. Coronary artery thrombosis or fat embolism.
  4. Surgical obstruction of the coronary arteries with angioplasty (dissection and ligation of the arteries).

Fig. 2 - Conditions preceding myocardial infarction.

An important role in the development of this serious disease is played by such risk factors as:

  • overweight,
  • smoking,
  • alcoholism,
  • elevated levels of triglycerides and "bad" cholesterol (LDL) in the blood,
  • low level of "good" cholesterol (HDL) in the blood,
  • lack of exercise
  • arterial hypertension more than 140/90 mm RT. Art.,
  • hereditary predisposition (coronary heart disease, strokes and heart attacks even in one of close relatives: parents, grandfathers, grandparents, brothers or sisters),
  • bleeding disorders
  • myocardial infarction
  • stressful situations
  • heart injuries
  • neoplasms (tumors and metastases),
  • over 45-50 years old
  • previous streptococcal and staphylococcal infectious diseases,
  • excessive exercise
  • rheumatic heart disease.

The presence of even one of the risk factors described above significantly increases the likelihood of myocardial infarction, and a combination of several predisposing factors increases the likelihood of developing this dangerous disease at times.

Symptoms of a heart attack in a man: early and acute phase

From this article you will learn: the characteristic signs of a heart attack in men, how to provide first aid before the doctors arrive.

Myocardial infarction is an acute lesion of the heart muscle, accompanied by a sharp spasm or blockage of the coronary arteries, leading to the death of some of the cells.

In men and women, a heart attack proceeds differently, which is associated with constitutional and hormonal differences.

Symptoms of a beginning myocardial infarction appear in men in 3–7 days. Due to their non-specificity, they are often missed without any connection with cardiac pathology.

If any of these symptoms occur, consult a cardiologist immediately.

Each patient with coronary artery disease, as well as his relatives, needs to study the symptoms of a heart attack and the rules of first aid, as up to 30% of patients do not live to see the doctors.

The first (early) symptoms in men

  • General fatigue, increased fatigue - observed 2.7 times more often in men,
  • dizziness attacks, which may be accompanied by vomiting, loss of consciousness,
  • dull or aching pain behind the sternum at rest,
  • unexplained pain in the upper half of the body, jaw, teeth,
  • flu-like symptoms - aches, drowsiness, weakness,
  • symptoms of indigestion, nausea,
  • previous depression is observed in men 4 times more often,
  • dyspnea after moderate habitual physical activity.

In women, the first signs begin in 14-30 days, are of a different nature.

The signs of a beginning myocardial infarction revealed at this stage with adequate first aid do not lead to necrosis of the heart muscle. And, therefore, a scar does not form, the rhythm is not broken, and a fatal outcome is prevented. Therefore, contact a cardiologist if your condition changes.

How does myocardial infarction develop?

Myocardial infarction may begin at the most unexpected moment. Violation of the integrity of atherosclerotic plaques can be triggered by heart palpitations, arterial hypertension, psycho-emotional overstrain and physical exertion. The appearance of a crack on an atherosclerotic plaque leads to the deposition of activated platelets and red blood cells on it. These processes trigger the process of blood coagulation and the formation of a blood clot. It can grow rapidly and the lumen of the artery begins to narrow sharply. Usually from the formation of a thrombus to complete obstruction (blockage) of the coronary artery, about 2-6 days pass. These processes are accompanied by the appearance of signs. preinfarction condition (unstable angina):

  • spontaneously occurring attacks of pain in the region of the heart, lasting more than 15 minutes and arising both against the background of physical activity, and at rest,
  • the appearance of heart palpitations, asthma attacks and perspiration,
  • an increase in the number of attacks of coronary pain throughout the day,
  • decrease in effect when taking nitroglycerin or the need for an additional dose to eliminate pain,
  • unstable signs of myocardial ischemia on ECG arising from attacks of pain or within 2-3 days: inversion of T waves, depression and short-term ST segment elevation.

Initially, the necrosis zone captures the upper layer of the myocardium. Then it begins to spread to the deeper layers of the heart muscle, heading to the outer lining of the heart - the epicardium. During the first hour of ischemia in a number of cardiomyocytes, the changes become irreversible. In the next 4 hours, the heart attack zone spreads to 60% of the thickness of the affected area of ​​the heart muscle, and over the next 20 hours, the lesion covers the remaining 40% of the myocardium. In some cases, it is possible to stop the spread of the heart attack zone by restoring blood flow in the affected area of ​​the heart by urgent surgery only during the first 6-12 hours.

With the timely start of treatment, the necrosis zone does not increase and by 7-10 days a young granulation tissue appears on the affected area of ​​the myocardium, which gradually begins to be replaced by connective tissue. As a result, after 2-4 months, a scar appears on the myocardium, which does not resolve and remains throughout life.

Depending on the scale of the zone of damage to the heart muscle, there are:

  • large-focal heart attacks - the area of ​​cardiac muscle necrosis extends to the entire thickness of the myocardium,
  • small focal heart attacks - the area of ​​necrosis of the heart muscle does not affect the entire thickness of the myocardium.

Symptoms of the acute phase

In the acute phase of a heart attack, men are characterized by a classic version of the course with acute severe pain behind the sternum, shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of air, disorientation, and increased heart rate. These symptoms develop at rest, without physical exertion. The pain with a heart attack is long, from 15 minutes to a day, can be wave-like.

Distinctive symptoms of a heart attack in a man can be:

  • "Neck" pain, burning sensation behind the sternum,
  • compression of the chest cavity (men describe it as if the elephant is sitting on the chest and shoulders),
  • pain behind the sternum, extending to the right side, occurs 5 times more often in men,
  • pain in the biceps, left shoulder, left arm, that is, passing to the upper belt,
  • a gastralgic variant of a heart attack is 3.7 times more common in men - abdominal pain, nausea, heartburn, bloating. Vomiting is more common in women (3.9 times more),
  • dyspnea,
  • cold sweat,
  • cyanosis, pallor of the skin, complexion becomes gray, earthy,
  • numbness, a tingling sensation in the limbs, which can signal peripheral vasospasm,
  • anxiety, fear of death, panic,
  • feeling of sinking heart
  • an increase in blood pressure during the first days of a heart attack in patients without a history of hypertension,
  • a rare symptom may be a dry cough, fever, an unexplained rash on the skin.

Such differences are explained by the structural features of the body: in men, the heart is larger, more centrally located. In women, the heart is smaller, located lower to the left.

In men, large arteries are more often clogged, the lesion area is better visualized during angiography.

Before the development of a heart attack, men are more examined, have a diagnosed ischemic disease 5 times more often.

Damage to small vessels is characteristic of a female heart attack, which is often not noticeable on the angiogram and leads to late diagnosis, most of the symptoms are considered false positive.

Atypical forms of myocardial infarction are also more common in women. This leads to a higher mortality rate among women.

The painless type of heart attack ("dumb") occurs in both sexes, signs of a condition "on the legs" may be pulmonary edema, arrhythmias, severe hypotension (lowering blood pressure). This option is typical for patients with diabetes.

First aid

The signs of myocardial infarction in men are very variable, so always call an ambulance for any inexplicable pain, discomfort, or unusual symptoms. An examination by a cardiologist and an ECG will allow you to remove or confirm the diagnosis.

If you have a history of coronary heart disease, carry nitroglycerin with you.

When someone has signs that are similar to the first manifestations of a heart attack, you need to quickly take action. Remember, cardiac muscle necrosis can be prevented only in the first 20-45 minutes after vascular thrombosis. With severe myocardial ischemia, there are 6-12 hours to prevent complications.

First aid for myocardial infarction:

  1. put the man on a hard surface
  2. take off all the squeezing clothes, loosen the tie,
  3. open the windows, providing access to fresh air,
  4. put a nitroglycerin tablet under your tongue,
  5. call the ambulance crew
  6. if the pain does not subside and the ambulance has not arrived, give nitroglycerin three times, with an interval of 5 minutes, while measuring blood pressure to prevent hypotension,
  7. give a 0.25-0.5 g aspirin tablet and ask the man to chew it,
  8. try to reassure the patient, inspire confidence that help is near,
  9. do not give any antihypertensive drugs until the doctors come,
  10. put documents (passport, policy, data from previous examinations) in a prominent place so as not to lose time after the arrival of the ambulance.

First aid measures for oneself are the same.

Summary

The first and main signs of a heart attack in men and women differ in 35% of cases, but it is too early to draw conclusions about the characteristic symptoms. Only a third of studies take into account gender differences.

In this case, male heart attack is better studied and proceeds more often typically. First aid correctly and in full is also more often provided to men, as it is not customary for women to suspect a heart attack.

It is not entirely true to compare symptoms depending on gender; each patient has a different state of the body and a previous history.

Typical form

In most cases in men, myocardial infarction is accompanied by the development of typical clinical symptoms, its signs cannot go unnoticed, becauseThe main symptom of the acute period is intense squeezing pain behind the sternum or in the heart. Many patients characterize it as "burning", "dagger", "tearing". It appears suddenly immediately after a psychoemotional or physical exertion or makes itself felt against the background of absolute rest (for example, during sleep). In some cases, pain can radiate to the left (sometimes to the right) arm, neck, lower jaw, or to the area between the shoulder blades. And its hallmark from pain in an attack of angina pectoris is its duration of up to half an hour or more.

Fig. 3 - Localization of pain with myocardial infarction (color intensity indicates the most common areas of pain).

The patient has complaints about:

  • severe weakness
  • anxiety,
  • feelings of fear of death.

In some cases, the patient may experience a fainting or fainting.

Anginal pain in an attack of myocardial infarction does not stop even by repeated administration of nitroglycerin and other drugs familiar to the patient. That is why most cardiologists always advise their patients to call an ambulance immediately if they have heartaches that last more than 15 minutes and cannot be eliminated with the usual medication for the patient.

In addition to anginal pain in the acute period of myocardial infarction, the patient has the following symptoms:

  • sharp pallor,
  • frequent and intermittent breathing
  • increased heart rate and arrhythmia
  • weak filling of the pulse,
  • heavy cold sweat
  • the appearance of a blue tint on the lips, mucous membranes and skin,
  • nausea (sometimes vomiting)
  • Blood pressure first rises and then drops sharply.

In some patients, during the acute period, the temperature may rise to 38 ° C or higher.

With the onset of an acute period, pain in most patients disappears. Painful sensations are present only in those patients in whom the development of a site of necrosis provoked inflammation of the pericardium or a pronounced violation of coronary blood flow in areas of the myocardium adjacent to a heart attack.

Due to the formation of a site of necrosis in patients in the acute period, the following symptoms are observed:

  • fever (for 3-10 and sometimes more than days),
  • the signs of heart failure are increasing: blue of the nasolabial triangle or nails, shortness of breath, darkening in the eyes, rapid pulse, dizziness,
  • blood pressure indicators remain elevated,
  • leukocytosis (up to 10-15 thousand),
  • increased ESR.

In the subacute period, pain in the heart completely stops and the patient's condition gradually begins to stabilize:

  • fever goes away
  • indicators of blood pressure and heart rate are normalized,
  • the severity of signs of heart failure is reduced.

In the post-infarction period, all symptoms completely disappear, and there is an improvement in laboratory tests.

Symptoms and harbingers of a heart attack in men

Myocardial infarction in men and women after 50–55 years of age statically occurs with the same frequency. But until this age, males suffer more from heart attacks. What is the reason for this? Is there a difference in diagnosis and treatment? In today's article, I will talk about the gender characteristics of one of the most dangerous and life-threatening diseases.

Atypical forms

In 20-25% of patients, the acute period of a heart attack can occur in atypical forms. In such cases, timely recognition of signs of this life-threatening condition can be complicated, and some patients suffer this period of a heart attack on their legs and do not seek medical help. The acute period of the disease in such patients is accompanied by a typical clinical picture.

Cardiologists among the atypical forms of the acute period distinguish such options for the development of symptoms:

  • Atypical pain - pain is felt in the shoulder or little finger of the left hand, in the neck, cervicothoracic spine, lower jaw, or in the shoulder blade.
  • Arrhythmic - arrhythmia and atrioventricular blockade are observed.
  • Abdominal - pains are felt in the upper region of the anterior abdominal wall and in their nature can resemble pain with a stomach ulcer or gastritis, and for making the correct diagnosis it is necessary to conduct instrumental and laboratory examination methods.
  • Collaptoid - pains are completely absent, blood pressure indicators are sharply reduced, dizziness, profuse cold sweat and fainting appear, the patient may develop cardiogenic shock.
  • Cerebral - the patient develops paresis of the arms and legs, confusion, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, speech disturbances, fainting, or fainting are noted.
  • Asthmatic - the pain is not very pronounced, the pulse is arrhythmic and weak, the patient develops a cough (sometimes with a separation of foamy sputum) and increasing shortness of breath. In severe cases, choking and pulmonary edema may develop.
  • Edematous - the patient develops severe dyspnea, weakness and a rapid increase in edema (up to the development of ascites).
  • Pain-free - the patient feels only uncomfortable sensations in the chest area, he has a pronounced weakness and profuse sweat.

Sometimes a patient in the acute period of myocardial infarction has symptoms of several atypical forms. In such cases, the patient's condition is significantly aggravated, and the risk of complications increases.

Causes of a heart attack in men and women: are there any differences

Acute necrosis of the heart muscle develops in the presence of an atherosclerotic plaque. Its growth in diameter or detachment of fragments contribute to blockage of the lumen of the coronary arteries. The blood supply to a certain area of ​​the myocardium is disrupted, and the affected area dies. The most frequent localization is the anterior wall and the interventricular septum. Less commonly, pathology occurs due to spasm or clogging of the coronary arteries with a blood clot (blood clot).

My medical practice has confirmed that the causes of heart attack in men are most often:

  • psycho-emotional overload, chronic stress,
  • excessive physical exertion,
  • smoking and alcohol abuse,
  • excess fatty, salty, smoked food in the diet.

In my opinion, an important factor is also the unwillingness to treat such serious diseases as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Their main danger is the absence of pain. The presence of these pathologies significantly increases the likelihood of a cardiovascular accident.

In addition, estrogen - a hormone that protects the heart - is produced in men in much smaller quantities than in women. That is why myocardial infarction up to 50–55 years (before the onset of menopause) is much more likely to affect the stronger sex.

Symptoms and Early Harbingers

I want to note that the first signs of a heart attack in men are usually sudden and they do not feel the approach of the disease. The main symptom is an attack of burning, baking, pressing pain behind the sternum that occurs in the early morning hours (4-6 in the morning). Pain radiates to the left half of the body, throat, lower jaw, stomach and interscapular region. Other manifestations:

  • dyspnea,
  • a feeling of interruption in the work of the heart,
  • lowering blood pressure
  • cyanosis or pallor of the skin,
  • fear of death.

Autonomic disorders - increased sweating, impaired consciousness - are less common. Also, the likelihood of developing serious acute complications, such as heart and kidney failure, bleeding, is also low. Dressler's syndrome, rhythm and conduction disturbances, post-infarction angina pectoris occur with the same frequency.In general, the prognosis for men who have had a heart attack is more favorable than for women - they more often die within 6 months after a cardiovascular accident.

The probability of recurrence or recurrent myocardial infarction in the male is 74% of cases, female - 41%. Harbingers - malaise and a feeling of lack of air.

First aid for myocardial infarction

At the first sign of a heart attack, an ambulance crew must be called in. The patient should be reassured, give him one of the sedatives: tincture of motherwort, valocordin or valerian, and lay in a horizontal position, raising his head.

Clothes that make breathing difficult (belt, tie, etc.) should be removed and an adequate supply of fresh air should be provided. To reduce the load on the heart, the patient must be given under the tongue a tablet of nitroglycerin or another nitro-containing drug (nitrosperey, nitromax, isoket) and a crushed tablet of acetylsalicylic acid. Prior to the arrival of the doctor, the administration of a nitrous-containing preparation can be repeated under the control of blood pressure indicators. With indicators of 130 mm RT. Art. and above, the drug can be repeated every 5 minutes and before the doctor arrives, the patient can be given 3 tablets of nitroglycerin (or 3 doses of a nitro-containing spray). With the appearance of a pulsating headache, the dose of the nitrous-containing drug should be reduced by half, and with a decrease in blood pressure, nitroglycerin should not be taken again.

Prior to the arrival of the ambulance crew, a non-narcotic pain medication (pentalgin, baralgin, spazmalgon or analgin) can be given to the patient to reduce pain, and if the patient has no history of bronchial asthma and the pulse rate does not exceed 70 beats / minute, one of the drugs of β-blockers ( anepro, atenolol, betacor).

During an attack of a heart attack, the patient may faint, respiratory arrest or heart failure. In such cases, it is urgent to carry out resuscitation measures - indirect heart massage and artificial respiration (in the mouth or nose). Before carrying out them, it is necessary to free the patient's mouth from sputum or dentures (if any). Pressing movements to the lower third of the sternum to a depth of 3-4 cm should be performed continuously with a frequency of 75-80 strokes per minute, and inhale air into the mouth or nose with a frequency of 2 breaths after every 15 strokes.

Diagnosis and treatment

According to the leadership of the American College of Cardiology, the treatment of patients with unstable angina (pre-infarction) and myocardial infarction without raising the ST segment is carried out in full without gender differences. But in practice, men are more often subjected to invasive medical procedures:

  • coronary angiography
  • percutaneous coronary interventions.

Of the drugs, the stronger sex is prescribed less antiplatelet therapy with less caution, since their risk of bleeding is lower than women. It consists of the use of "Aspirin" at a dose of ≥ 75 mg per day and "Clopidogrel" - 75 mg per day. The alternatives are:

Beta-blockers can adversely affect potency.

Medical assistance

After the arrival of the ambulance doctor, the patient is injected with narcotic and non-narcotic pain medications (morphine, trimepiridin, omnopon, dipidolor, fortral) in combination with atropine and a desensitizing drug (suprastin, diphenhydramine, pipolfen). To ensure rest, the patient is administered a tranquilizer (seduxen, relanium).

To assess the condition, an ECG is performed and if it is impossible to transport the patient to the hospital, thrombolytic drugs (purolase, alteplase, tenecteplase) are administered over the next 30 minutes. After this, the patient is carefully transferred on a stretcher to the car and before arrival in the intensive care unit they inject him with a mixture of solutions of fentanyl and droperidol or thalomonal.Throughout the transportation, the patient is oxygenated with moistened oxygen.

Life after a heart attack

Of course, all men who have suffered myocardial necrosis are immediately worried by several questions: how to recover faster after a heart attack, is it necessary to adhere to a diet, is it possible to drink alcohol and have sex. I will answer them in order.

The recovery period, in my opinion, is the most important and crucial stage, because now a lot depends not only on the doctor, but also on the patient himself. Its duration depends on the severity of the heart attack and the presence of concomitant complications (post-infarction angina pectoris, aneurysms, chronic heart failure) and includes:

  • Diet therapy. I recommend significantly limiting the consumption of table salt, spices and fatty meats (pork, lamb, etc.). The multiplicity of food intake should be increased to 5-6 times a day, but the volume of servings should be reduced.
  • Lifestyle change. A healthy night's sleep, moderate exercise, and smoking cessation are important. If possible, it is necessary to change work to a calmer one. It is important to remember that night shift work is associated with constant stressful situations (security guards, teachers, doctors and others).
  • Psychological rehabilitation. In my opinion, it is more difficult for a man to realize his illness and some kind of weakness associated with it. He becomes aggressive and irritable, so it is important to work with a competent psychologist.

I recommend that alcohol after heart attack and heart surgery (stenting or bypass surgery) be excluded for at least a year. In a recent study, American scientists observed 2,000 heart attacks and got interesting results. Patients who had a heart attack and subsequently drank moderately alcohol (up to 30 g of ethanol per day) were at risk of dying by 14% less than those who completely abandoned it. In addition, the risk of recurring heart attack was lower by 42%.

Having sex is also not contraindicated. On the contrary, light physical exertion favorably affects health. I just want to note that positions in which the man is below or from the side are desirable.

Specialist advice

After a heart attack, medications must be taken for life. To my patients, I prescribe:

  • statins - normalize the ratio of "bad" and "good" fats,
  • anti-ischemic drugs (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists or nitrates) - contribute to improving blood supply to the heart muscle,
  • antiplatelet agents (Aspirin in low doses or P2Y12 enzyme inhibitors - Clopidogrel) - improve blood flow and viscosity.

Therapy of myocardial infarction in a hospital

Drug therapy

After delivery to the department with a prolonged attack of pain, the patient is shown to perform inhaled anesthesia with a gas mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide. Next, the patient undergoes oxygen therapy and perform the introduction of such drugs:

  • nitro-containing agents (nitroglycerin, isoket, isosorbide, etc.) are administered intravenously to reduce the load on the myocardium,
  • antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel) and anticoagulants (heparin, dicumarol, warfarin) - for the prevention of thrombosis, which can trigger the development of a new heart attack,
  • β-blockers (obzidan, atenolol, acebutol, anaprilin, propranolol, etc.) - to eliminate tachycardia and reduce the load on the myocardium,
  • antiarrhythmic drugs (rhythmylene, diphenin, lidocaine, amiodarone, etc.) - are used in the development of arrhythmia to stabilize the activity of the heart,
  • ACE inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, captopril, etc.) - are used to lower blood pressure,
  • sleeping pills and sedatives (lorazepam, triazolam, diazepam, temazepam, etc.) - are used if necessary to eliminate anxiety and sleep disorders.

If necessary, the treatment plan can be supplemented with other drugs (antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive drugs, blockers of adrenergic receptors of the heart muscle, etc.), the selection of which depends on the patient's concomitant diseases.

Surgical intervention

In severe forms of a heart attack, the absence of contraindications and sufficient equipment of the medical institution, the patient can undergo minimally invasive surgical interventions such as balloon angioplasty, aortocoronary or mammarocoronary bypass surgery aimed at restoring blood circulation in the infarction zone. They allow patients to avoid the development of serious complications and reduce the risk of death.

With a complete blockage of the blood vessel and the impossibility of installing the stent and with damage to the heart valves, the patient may undergo an open operation (with the opening of the chest). In such cases, during the intervention, the valves are replaced with artificial ones and then a stent is inserted.

Conditions of rest and food

In the first day, a patient with myocardial infarction is shown to comply with strict bed rest - the patient is not recommended for any physical activity (even body turns in bed). In the absence of complications, its gradual expansion begins from the third day.

In the first 3-4 weeks after myocardial infarction, the patient must follow a low-calorie diet with a restriction of animal fats, foods with excessive amounts of fiber and nitrogen compounds, salt and liquid. In the first 7 days after the attack, the food should be served in pureed form, in small portions (6-7 meals per day).

Clinical case

A 42-year-old man complained of burning pains in the sternum, without clear irradiation, which were triggered by the uplift of the piano. He works as a loader, smokes for 23 years. A history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conducting instrumental and laboratory studies revealed the following deviations: OAC (Hb 172 g / l, erythrocytes 5.8 cells / l), ECG (ST segment elevation and pathological Q wave in II, III, AvF with reciprocal changes in the corresponding leads). Was diagnosed with myocardial infarction of the posterior diaphragmatic region, acute stage, AHF 0 tbsp.

During treatment (oxygen mask, Morphine, Aspirin, Nitrospray, Enoksaparin) and the subsequent rehabilitation period, the general condition improved markedly. I observed a patient for 1.5 years, repeated myocardial infarction and other complications were not observed.

The following sources of information were used to prepare the material.

Why do men have a heart attack?

There are more predisposing factors for the occurrence of MI in men than in women. Most often, the attack occurs in young and middle age. This is primarily due to the sedentary lifestyle of modern men. Many of them are engaged in office work, smoke and often drink alcohol, suffer from obesity or diabetes, so they sooner or later face a heart attack.

Other common causes of MI in men, not women, are as follows:

  • The tendency to rivalry, confrontation, scandals.
  • More frequent occupations by harmful types of work.
  • Lack of proper diet.
  • The presence of bad habits.

The more risk factors are determined in a patient, the higher the risk of developing primary or recurrent myocardial infarction.

The disease is associated with a very sharp disturbance in the normal functioning of the heart, which causes dysfunction in many organs and systems of the body. Depending on the type of nervous irritation, one or another symptomatology is determined, among which pain is of primary importance. Most often, it is with her that myocardial infarction begins and a person understands that something is wrong with him.

Pain with MI can be of several types:

  • Zagrudnaya
  • By type of discomfort or pressure in the heart
  • Pain in other parts of the body.

Chest pain

This is the most common symptom of a heart attack in men and women. Most often, it develops slowly, starting with mild pain or discomfort. The sudden onset of serious symptoms is sometimes referred to as a “Hollywood heart attack,” since typical cases of MI are very often portrayed in movies and on television. In the traditional version of development, a heart attack is not so common.

Chest discomfort or pressure

Pain may be difficult to tolerate, but it is not necessary. Often there is a feeling of "fullness", squeezing or squeezing. With insufficient awareness, this condition can be mistaken for heartburn. An uncomfortable sensation often occurs in the left or central part of the chest. The feeling can last several minutes or drag on for half an hour or more.

Pain in other parts of the body

Pain or discomfort sometimes has a different location, because with myocardial infarction there is an incorrect distribution of blood in different organs, most often in the brain. The parts of the body that are above the waist are usually affected, including the upper abdomen, shoulders, one arm (possibly the left), or both, the back, neck, or jaw, sometimes even the teeth.

Shortness of breath caused by difficulty breathing can be combined with chest pain or manifest without it. This symptom is often the first to indicate a developing violation of cardiac activity. Usually shortness of breath occurs when the patient performs increased physical activity or even at rest after a hearty dinner. Shortness of breath develops due to accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Also nearby people who are sick can hear wheezing at a distance.

Feeling severe fatigue for no reason is another common symptom in which appropriate precautions should be taken.

Another possible symptom is increased cold sweat. Additionally, nausea and vomiting may be felt, but these symptoms are more common in women than in men.

The more symptoms are determined, the higher the risk that there is a heart attack. But you should know that the disease can occur without any symptoms. Such heart attacks are called silent and are more common in elderly patients.

There are a number of symptoms of myocardial infarction that are not always so pronounced as to attract the attention of the patient or those around him. But to know them is extremely important, since the rapid provision of first-aid and medical care saves valuable time.

  1. Irradiation of pain (usually in the arm). Typical sternal pain does not always occur. Unpleasant sensations in the chest can be mild, while the main pain spreads to the arm, lower jaw, thoracic spine, etc.
  2. Dizziness . Patients with MI can feel a loss of balance or instant weakness. This condition is often combined with discomfort in the chest or behind the sternum.
  3. Pain in the lower jaw or throat. This symptom most likely does not have a direct relationship with damage to the heart muscle, but when determining it, you should definitely consult a doctor.
  4. Snoring. Slight snoring is not particularly dangerous. If snoring becomes protracted, like breathing, then this may indicate sleep apnea.
  5. Cough that does not bring relief. This symptom is not characteristic of a heart attack, but with a frequent occurrence of dry cough and a history of heart disease, you need to pay attention to it.
  6. Swelling of the legs in the ankles and feet. The sign indicates heart failure, which in some cases develops immediately after MI. It occurs against the background of a weak pressure function of the heart, because of which blood begins to accumulate in the veins of the legs and its liquid part penetrates into nearby tissues, leading to their swelling
  7. Disturbed heart rhythm (arrhythmia). With a pronounced course of the disease, this symptom should alert, which will allow them to seek medical help at an early stage of MI. Sometimes arrhythmia occurs due to lack of sleep or the use of caffeine in large quantities. But at the same time, a similar symptom may indicate the presence of atrial fibrillation, in which an ambulance is required.

In order not to complicate your own health in the future and not to develop chronic heart disease, you need to contact a cardiologist if the main symptoms of the disease appear. If a person is at risk, then he needs an annual medical examination.

These are the following categories of people:

  • patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus of any form,
  • having close relatives endowed with pathologies of the heart and blood vessels,
  • suffering from hypertension of 3 degrees.

If the first manifestation of a heart attack does not provide the patient with urgent medical care, then this condition is likely to lead to the development of stroke and coronary heart disease, which are considered hazardous to health. The “rejuvenation” of this disease is negatively affected by inattention to one's own health, frequent smoking and alcohol abuse, as well as smoked, fatty and spicy foods included in the diet.

As mentioned above, one of the causes of heart problems is a neglect of your health. If measures are not taken to treat some diseases at an early stage, they can go into a chronic form and provoke the development of a heart attack.

Such diseases include:

  • improper or impaired metabolism leading to obesity,
  • atherosclerosis,
  • coagulation dysfunction,
  • diabetes,
  • high cholesterol
  • lack of exercise.

The more the above reasons the patient will have, the higher the risk of myocardial infarction.

If you pay attention to the state of your health, you can timely notice the first and main symptoms of a pre-infarction and prevent its development.

The fact that the onset of myocardial infarction in men begins is indicated by these signs:

  1. The appearance of pain in the chest, scapula, or upper arms, which most often occurs when a person is active (usually such painful or oppressive).
  2. Dyspnea.
  3. Lack of oxygen, in which the patient begins to suffocate.

These first signs of a heart attack in men with the appearance of the first stage of development of vascular and heart diseases usually appear, and after some time pass.

The main causes of myocardial infarction are associated with the development of atherosclerosis, in which there is a narrowing of the coronary arteries that supply the heart with blood. This disease can often begin as early as adolescence, develop over many years, and only then, manifest as a health disorder.

Symptoms of atherosclerosis include:

  • dyspnea,
  • paroxysmal chest pain,
  • memory impairment
  • leg pain that occurs while walking,
  • dizziness,
  • decreased potency in men up to 55 years of age.

With atherosclerosis, not only the blood vessels that feed the heart are damaged, but also the arteries in the legs, as well as the carotid artery that feeds the blood to the brain. It is worth knowing that atherosclerosis is not a natural age-related problem, but a disease that can and should even be treated.

With the development of a heart attack, the main symptoms of myocardial infarction join the first signs of a pre-infarction state:

  • lethargy, which resembles the state of health with the development of influenza,
  • high blood pressure
  • arrhythmia, which occurs without the presence of stress on the body,
  • excessive sweating
  • the appearance of toothache,
  • numbness of the sternum, as well as the trunk on the left side,
  • nausea and vomiting.

This painful condition lasts several minutes, hours or days, so in any case, you need to pay close attention to it, especially if the pain lasts a long time and is endowed with different intensities.

It is worth knowing that in patients who do not suffer from hypertension, in the first day of myocardial infarction, an increase in blood pressure often occurs to the level of 190/100. In the next 2 days, a decrease in pressure occurs, and on the 4th day it rises again, but does not reach its initial values. In order not to lead to complications, doctors during a heart attack are required to carefully monitor the state of blood pressure.

If the disease was transferred on the legs and the signs of myocardial infarction in men were implicit, the patient must be sent to a hospital where he will undergo a thorough examination of the body.

This is especially important to do if these symptoms appear:

  • a sharp decrease in blood pressure,
  • pulmonary edema,
  • heart rhythm disturbance,
  • pallor of the skin.

With the development of a heart attack and the occurrence of its symptoms, the patient needs to provide first aid, which consists in the following actions:

  1. It is necessary to free the man's chest, for which it is necessary to unbutton his shirt or remove his sweater.
  2. It is required to put 1 tablet of nitroglycerin under the tongue.
  3. It is necessary to lay the man on a hard surface, after which it is imperative to provide him with peace, which must be carried out until the arrival of the doctors.
  4. Ensure a normal flow of fresh air, for which you need to open all the windows.

General information

The heart attack clinic for men and women is different. This phenomenon is associated with constitutional and hormonal differences. In the male, clogging of large arteries most often occurs. When conducting angiography, the affected area is better visualized. The symptoms of the disease are diverse, and this fact makes diagnosis difficult.

Myocardial infarction is an acute clinical form of coronary heart disease, that is, due to a malfunction in blood supply, several or one part of the heart muscle dies, and a scar forms at this point. The damaged area is not able to recover, and, accordingly, to perform its functions. An extensive lesion often causes the death of an individual. Life expectancy after a heart attack depends on:

  • timely assistance by medical personnel,
  • from the breadth of the damage to the heart muscle,
  • the presence of consequences
  • follow the doctor’s recommendations.

It is important to know that precursors-symptoms, or the first signs of a heart attack, in men make themselves felt in a few (usually 3–7), but they happen in 30–40 days. Due to the fact that they are short-term and quickly pass, they are often not paid attention to. So, when the first symptoms of this ailment appear in men, physicians should be called immediately. Treatment at home is unacceptable, since there is a high risk of death, and in another case, disability.

Myocardial infarction. Some statistics

Increasingly, in recent years, doctors have diagnosed this ailment in young men. Earlier, a heart attack usually occurred in people over 60 years old. According to statistics, the most vulnerable to this disease are men in the age category from forty to sixty years. Later, the likelihood of its occurrence decreases, and at seventy years it is registered very rarely.

The reason for this phenomenon is as follows. Frequent bouts of angina pectoris contribute to the formation of roundabouts of blood flow. Therefore, in the event of a failure of blood flow in the central arteries, they come to the rescue. The incidence of heart attack in men 50 years of age and older is the same as in women in this age category.

The most common cause of this phenomenon is a lesion of the blood vessels provoked by atherosclerosis.Often, the pathology develops due to a hereditary predisposition, hypertension, kidney disease, as well as endocrine disruptions. The risk of an ailment increases in the fall and spring. According to medical statistics, myocardial infarction is twice as often diagnosed in a strong half of humanity. At present, a heart attack in a 30-year-old man is often found, which does not surprise anyone.

  • alcoholism,
  • diabetes,
  • smoking,
  • hypertonic disease,
  • constant stress
  • obesity,
  • excessive physical and mental activity,
  • disorders of the blood coagulation system.

In addition, even against the background of kidney damage, the development of a heart attack is possible. The causes of extensive heart attack in men are similar to those described above. In the case of this form of the disease, necrosis is present in various areas of the heart. And depending on the area of ​​the lesion, the following forms of extensive heart attack are distinguished - the posterior or front wall of the myocardium. The beginning of the development of pathology occurs in the left ventricle.

  • gout,
  • nervous system diseases
  • diabetes,
  • hypertension,
  • passive way of spending time,
  • metabolic failure
  • problems with the blood coagulation system,
  • high cholesterol
  • genetic predisposition.

Consider the first signs of a heart attack in men. Symptoms of precursors that signal an approaching problem are as follows:

  • rapid pulse,
  • growing drowsiness and weakness,
  • tingling and numbness of the limbs,
  • dermal cyanosis,
  • dizziness,
  • possible loss of consciousness,
  • pressure surges,
  • enhanced sweat separation
  • dyspnea,
  • fatigue,
  • feeling of lack of air.

The above symptoms appear a few days (3–7) before a heart attack. The first symptom of the onset of the disease is the sudden onset of intense pain behind the sternum in the region of the heart. It lasts more than ten minutes, and it is impossible to stop it with pain medication. By nature, the pain has a relapsing character and can be:

It is able to give to the jaw, perineum, scapula, upper limb, spread to the right half of the body. A pain attack is accompanied by:

  • heart rate
  • panic,
  • disorientation,
  • cold sweat,
  • dry cough,
  • a sinking heart
  • fear of death.

Most often, a heart attack is detected closer to dawn. The explanation for this phenomenon is as follows. At night, the heart works less intensively, and awakening is associated with the release of hormonal substances into the blood, which stimulate its activity. Therefore, in the mornings, an increase in heart rate, an increase in pressure, arrhythmias and, as a result, rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is likely. However, this does not exclude the development of a heart attack in other hours.

Myocardial infarction is a clinical form of coronary heart disease. It is manifested by ischemic necrosis of the myocardial region, which is caused by a violation of blood supply. The severity of the process is due to how disrupted the process of blood supply - in whole or in part.

The mortality rate for myocardial infarction is very high, since often patients seek help late, when the process has already gone very far. Recovery largely depends on where the focus is located and which affected area it affects.

  • Smoking (cigarettes, pipe tobacco, cigars), including passive smoking.
  • The presence of arterial hypertension (high blood pressure).
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • Obesity.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Gender (men are more susceptible to this disease than women).
  • Age (more common in people older than 40-50 years).
  • Diabetes.
  • Rheumatic heart disease.
  • A history of staphylococcal or streptococcal infections.
  • High levels of bad cholesterol.
  • Low levels of good cholesterol.
  • The presence of a large amount of triglycerides in the blood of the patient.
  • Atherosclerosis.
  • Previous myocardial infarction.

Herbal medicine is a medication, created thanks to medicinal herbs that have a therapeutic effect on the functioning of the heart muscle. They help eliminate spasms that develop in the vessels, reduce the amount of cholesterol hazardous to health, normalize blood pressure and remove excess and unnecessary fluid from the body.

Such medicinal plants include valerian, rosehip hawthorn, corn stigmas, calendula and motherwort:

  1. To prepare the hawthorn infusion, you need to take a pinch of ripe fruits, then pour them with 250 ml of hot water. Then it is worth letting the mixture brew for 30 minutes, after which use one glass 2 times a day.
  2. To prepare tinctures from berries of wild strawberries and rose hips, 50 g of the fruits of these plants are taken (you can also take leaves). Raw materials should be poured with 0.5 liters of water and steamed for 15 minutes. Then you need to filter the infusion and add boiled water to the original volume. Consume 2 times a day for half a glass before eating.

When conducting cereal therapy, patients eat germinated barley grains, rye and wheat. First, the grains must be disinfected with 255 manganese, and then pour over boiling water. The grain that needs to be sprouted, you need to put in the dishes and pour half a liter of water. When they absorb all the liquid, the grains must be decomposed on a wet cloth and covered with gauze soaked in water. After 2 days, the sprouts will grow by a centimeter and will be ready to receive.

Strengthen blood vessels and the heart can be certain types of products. For example, nuts, vegetable oils or honey can quickly strengthen and expand the walls of blood vessels, as well as normalize the blood supply to the heart muscles. To make this useful and tasty medicine, you need to combine 2 tablespoons of honey and a pinch of nuts. The resulting mixture should be eaten in a day.

Have you ever suffered from HEARING IN HEART? Judging by the fact that you are reading this article, the victory was not on your side. And of course you are still looking for a good way to bring your heart to normal.

Then read what Elena Malysheva says in this interview about natural methods of treating the heart and cleansing blood vessels.

If blood does not enter the heart, cells do not receive oxygen and nutrients. Such conditions lead to the death of cardiomyocytes. The longer the heart is under hypoxia, the more cells die.

The reasons that lead to obstruction of the coronary vessels are different. In men, this is most often:

  • Atherosclerosis of blood vessels. This is a disease characterized by deposition of cholesterol in the vascular cavity. At a certain stage of the disease, an atherosclerotic plaque appears, narrowing the lumen. If the plaque is localized in the coronary arteries, this can cause a heart attack. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of pathology in men over 60 years of age.
  • The presence of a blood clot. A blood clot in the coronary arteries can also be the cause of their obstruction. The cause of blood clots is increased blood clotting. This is characteristic of varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis.

Spasm of the vessels of the heart

Embolism. Embolism is a condition characterized by blockage of a vessel by a substrate having a different localization. For example, if a blood clot formed in the veins of the lower extremities, but got into the vessels of the heart. An embolus can be not only blood clots, but also air bubbles, drops of fat.

  • Spasm of the vessels. Prolonged spasm leads to narrowing of the arteries. With a significant decrease in clearance, a heart attack may develop. This condition develops more often in young men.
  • Various diseases, bad habits, and the wrong lifestyle can lead to such conditions. Most often, the occurrence of a heart attack is immediately associated with several provoking factors. The provoking factors of male heart attack include:

    • high blood pressure
    • eating large amounts of fats, simple carbohydrates,
    • alcohol intake
    • smoking,
    • sedentary lifestyle,
    • age (in older people, the risk of developing the disease is much higher),
    • hereditary predisposition
    • dyslipidemia.

    1. Excess weight, due to which an additional burden is placed on the heart.

    2. Not an active lifestyle.

    3. Diabetes mellitus.

    4. Atherosclerosis of the vessels is most often the cause of clogging of the vessels with plaques. It is this disease that usually leads to acute myocardial infarction.

    5. Frequent drinking and smoking, which leads to vasospasm.

    6. Arterial hypertension (sudden surges in pressure).

    7. Hereditary predisposition of a person to heart disease.

    8. Elevated blood cholesterol.

    9. Improper nutrition (especially eating fatty foods).

    10. Frequent stress and nervous strain.

    11. Previously transmitted staphylococcal infections.

    12. Previously transferred microinfarction.

    13. A man's age is from forty to fifty years.

    14. Violation of blood coagulability.

    The first symptoms of myocardial infarction in men

    According to statistics, myocardial infarction in men is constantly “getting younger” and is now able to affect even those people who are barely over thirty.

    1. First, a person will feel pains in the heart, extending to the shoulder or back. At the same time, pains will not necessarily occur after physical exertion - they may well develop at rest.

    The nature of chest pain is sharp, stitching, squeezing, cutting. In this case, it will hurt a person to take a breath.

    Features of the onset of the disease in the male

    In a strong half of humanity, and especially in young men, the causes of myocardial infarction are associated with some risks that have an adverse effect on the body. Their lifestyle comes to the fore, as well as:

    • constant stress
    • excess weight,
    • excessive use of alcohol-containing drinks,
    • poor nutrition
    • smoking
    • untimely appeal to the doctor.

    As mentioned earlier, a heart attack is a violation of the nutrition of certain parts of the heart muscle, which results in necrosis. The main cause of this pathology is a failure of patency of the coronary vessels, which is facilitated by the above undesirable factors. Thus, the leading cause of myocardial infarction in men, especially at a fairly young age, is the occurrence of blood clots, as a result of which the patency of the arteries of the heart is impaired. Consider the mechanism of this process:

    • A blood clot or clot penetrates with blood into the cavity of the artery, which supplies the heart muscle, and the lumen of the vessel is closed.
    • Myocardial nutrition ceases.
    • After a few minutes, usually no more than twenty, the death of tissue of the heart muscle begins.

    If within three to four hours the patient does not receive emergency specialized care, then the probability of death increases significantly.

    Earlier, a heart attack was considered a disease of older men. However, in recent decades, this pathology has become younger, and young men are not safe from this terrible disease. According to statistics, about sixty percent of people experience a heart attack after a 65-year milestone. The stronger sex is most susceptible to this disease.

    Common causes of heart attack in young men are due to the fact that male sex hormones less actively protect the blood vessels of the heart, in contrast to women. Therefore, a disease such as coronary atherosclerosis in women develops later than in men. After 45 years, there is a sharp decrease in the level of sex hormones, and the risk of heart attack in women increases. Unfortunately, most ladies do not pay attention to precursor symptoms and later turn to doctors for help.

    Thus, the fair sex in the age category from 55 to 60 years old, the risk of this ailment is as great as that of men at 60 years old. The causes of a heart attack are constant stress, physical inactivity, malnutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and smoking.

    Heart attack prevention: basic rules

    2. Eat right.

    3. Have a good sleep and rest.

    4. Avoid strong psycho-emotional overstrain and stress.

    5. Refuse bad habits.

    6. Exert a moderate load on the body and be physically active.

    7. Promptly consult a doctor when the first signs of a heart attack appear.

    8. Timely treat chronic diseases, as well as pathologies of the heart.

    9. Avoid sudden changes in blood pressure.

    According to statistics, men aged 40-50 are most prone to heart attack, so people in this age category should be extremely attentive to their health.

    In order to prevent a man from having a heart attack, you need to take timely measures that will prevent his occurrence.

    You can do this as follows:

    • proper nutrition
    • lifestyle changes, which include the mandatory abandonment of unhealthy habits,
    • balanced physical activity, which includes both work and good rest,
    • peace of the central nervous system, which can be achieved if stressful situations and a depressive state are avoided,
    • sports, which should take into account all the recommendations of the doctor,
    • Man visiting sanatoriums.

    A well-designed diet helps speed up the patient's recovery.

    It consists in the following rules for choosing food:

    • refusal to use animal fats - only vegetable fats are allowed to the patient,
    • it is allowed to eat fresh cottage cheese, while the daily dose should not exceed 200 g,
    • care must be taken in foods that contain a lot of cholesterol,
    • the use of poultry and seafood, which should be boiled or steamed (these ingredients must be non-greasy),
    • you need to strictly limit the amount of salt - about 5 g per day,

    Every day, a man should take fresh vegetables, berries, juices, compotes and fruits. Important is the rejection of spicy, smoked, pickled food.

    Speaking of prevention, one should keep in mind smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, weight normalization, proper rest, stress avoidance, A / D control, regular intake of prescribed heart medications. Such patients should always carry a first aid kit with medicines for emergency care. It must be remembered that the pre-infarction state is the very first step to a heart attack, and it is in your power to avoid it.

    Stages of an extensive heart attack

    There are several stages of this ailment:

    1. Prodromal or preinfarction state - lasts from several hours to a month, depending on the individual characteristics of the body. The patient has persistent angina pectoris.
    2. Acute - in time it takes from thirty to one hundred and twenty minutes. The individual feels severe pain in the chest, throws him into a cold sweat. The heart rate is unstable, the pressure drops.
    3. Acute - from three to ten days. In the myocardium, a section of dying tissue forms. Body temperature rises, arrhythmia is observed, the pain is dulled.
    4. A scar is formed. At this stage, which takes four to five weeks in duration, the pressure and heart rate normalize.
    5. Post-infarction or the last - from three to six months. The heart adapts to work in new conditions.

    Causes of myocardial infarction in men, the very first symptoms, first aid. Methods of treating myocardial infarction in men

    Myocardial infarction is a condition in which the blood supply to the muscles of the heart is severely disturbed, because of which their partial necrotization occurs.This condition is especially dangerous in old age, because then the lumen of the vessels is very vulnerable and can burst or form a blood clot. Let us consider in more detail the first symptoms of myocardial infarction in men and methods of treating this dangerous disease.

    Treatment of myocardial infarction in men

    Treatment of myocardial infarction in men is always medication. It is prescribed after providing a person with first aid and diagnosing the disease.
    Traditional therapy involves the appointment of such groups of drugs:
    1. Drugs to reduce the load on the heart (Nitroglycerin, Isokerite).
    2. Drugs for the prevention of blood clots (Aspirin, Heparin).
    3. Medications to normalize heart rhythm (Rhythmylene, Amiodarone).
    4. Drugs to eliminate arrhythmias.
    5. Soothing and sleeping pills.
    Also, the patient can additionally be prescribed analgesics for chest pain and drugs to normalize blood pressure. Moreover, when detecting a blood clot, drugs that cause a blood clot are used. Surgical treatment is less commonly prescribed.
    In addition to drug therapy, during treatment of myocardial infarction, the patient should always adhere to the following doctor's recommendations:
    1. Observe bed rest and refuse any physical exertion.
    2. Refuse bad habits.
    3. Do not worry or worry.
    4. Take all medications prescribed by your doctor.
    5. Follow a diet.
    Nutrition after myocardial infarction
    Nutrition after myocardial infarction plays a very important role in the overall success of treatment. Such a diet provides for the following:
    1. The patient must adhere to the so-called Mediterranean diet, therefore, fatty acids from sea fish must be included in the menu. You need to eat fish dishes at least three times a week. Additionally, you can also take capsules of fatty acids.
    2. You need to eat often, but not in large portions. It is also important to adhere to a fractional diet and not combine difficult to digest foods in one meal.
    3. Patients after a heart attack should abandon the use of salt, spices and sugar. You should also eat foods that kindle blood.
    4. In the first days after the attack, it is recommended to drink kefir, tea and diluted juices.
    5. All meals when eating after myocardial infarction should be steamed or boiled. Fatty, smoked, salted or fried people should be completely abandoned.
    6. Mushrooms, fast food, broth, fat milk and spirits should be completely excluded from the diet.
    The diet after myocardial infarction allows you to consume the following products:
    1. Vegetable soups, as well as mashed soups. You can also add greens and low-fat sour cream to such dishes.
    2. Rye bread. It is better if it is slightly dried.
    3. Dietary biscuit cookies without sugar, creams and jam.
    4. Meat of low-fat varieties (rabbit meat, chicken, turkey). Meat dishes should be steamed, baked or boiled. You can also make meat pastes.
    5. Fish of low-fat varieties (hake, pike perch). It should be served only in boiled form.
    6. Boiled seafood can be served with sour cream.
    7. Eggs can be eaten as a steamed protein omelet.
    8. Dairy products must be present on the menu. It is allowed to use low-fat kefir, yogurt, milk. You can also curd and yogurt.
    9. Juices can be fruit and vegetable. If the juices are sweet, then they should be diluted with water.
    10. Among spices allowed bay leaf and cinnamon. As for hot sauces, all of them are prohibited.
    11. From fruits, almost all fruits are allowed, except for too sweet and sour. It is best to eat baked apples with honey.
    12. From drinks you can drink fruit jelly, a decoction of dried fruits and green tea without sugar.
    13. It is very important to eat vegetables. You can make stews and casseroles from them.White cabbage is not advisable to eat.
    14. Useful are cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal). You can eat them almost every day. Also, cereals can be added to soups.
    List of foods that should not be consumed after myocardial infarction:
    1. Fats - lard, condensed milk, various creams.
    2. Sweet confectionery - cakes, pastries, sweets, ice cream, etc.
    4. Pickled salted vegetables.
    5. Sausages.

    How to live for men after a heart attack

    The acute consequences include:

    • Heart failure - since this disease affects the left side of the heart muscle, a scar forms on it. As a result of this, the heart is contracting poorly, which leads to a decrease in the release of blood, which means its stagnation in the muscle and the deterioration of blood flow to the internal organs.
    • Arrhythmia - appears in the left ventricle of the heart, which leads to ventricular fibrillation.
    • Thrombosis - with a blood stream, blood clots are able to move throughout the body of a man, reaching the brain - this is considered the main cause of coronary disease.
    • Heart rupture - develops with increased pressure of blood flow to the heart muscles, where a scar is present.

    The long-term effects of the disease are not so severe.

    These include:

    1. pericarditis is an inflammation of the serous membrane of the heart,
    2. arrhythmia - rhythm disturbance,
    3. cardiosclerosis - develops with poor circulation.

    All these, and other consequences of a heart attack in men, can contribute to the further appearance of blood clots, worsening of blood vessels and the heart, and also increase the risk of rupture of the heart muscle.

    In order to fully restore the body's strength after recovery and fill it with useful vitamins and minerals, you need to follow a certain diet. After a cured heart attack, it is recommended to eat foods that can lower the amount of cholesterol that is harmful to health.

    The menu for a heart attack should consist of three stages - the acute type, subacute and scarring time, each of which has its own distinctive features when thinking over the diet:

    1. Acute. The first 14 days of the disease you need to eat only easily digestible food - liquid porridge, boiled vegetables, low-fat soups. But heavy food at this time should not be in the diet, it should be replaced with light cereals, mashed potatoes from boiled vegetables and fruits, honey dishes.
    2. Subacute. At this stage, cereals and fruits should occupy the main place in the diet. In this case, the patient is forbidden to consume chocolate, spices, alcoholic beverages, as well as coffee and teas. You need to eat a little, but often - up to 6 times a day, not exceeding 1100 kcal.
    3. Scarring period. At this time, it is worth completely abandoning the intake of fatty foods and salt, and try to take protein and carbohydrate dishes. The patient can eat cottage cheese, rice, mashed vegetables, fruits, fresh fish, fresh salads.

    To normalize metabolic processes, you should drink at least 1.5 liters of fluid - then it will be possible to accelerate recovery and prevent the recurrence of a heart attack.

    With early diagnosis and treatment initiation, the prognosis is relatively favorable. Subject to medical advice, clinical recovery is possible. However, the consequences in the form of connective tissue scar remain for life. In the future, this can provoke a decrease in heart function, the development of arrhythmia.

    Myocardial infarction in men is a dangerous pathology that can lead to various complications, disability and death. It is possible to prevent adverse effects if symptoms of the disease are identified in time and seek medical help. An important role in the outcome of the disease is played by the rehabilitation period.

    • 2009 - 2014, Donetsk National Medical University. M. Gorky
    • 2014 - 2017, Zaporizhzhya State Medical University (ZDMU)
    • 2017 - present, I am doing an internship in obstetrics and gynecology

    The diet requires the patient to speed up meals in the first week, up to 6 times a meal per day. In your daily diet, you must include lean beef, boiled or stewed fish, crackers. Also, the diet recommended after a heart attack involves the use of vegetable soups, mashed potatoes and cereals, dairy products. But products like smoked meats and cheeses, pastries and alcoholic beverages, salt and coffee, chocolate after a heart attack should be completely removed.

    A post-infarction diet implies fractional nutrition in the first month, after a week you can start eating unsalted non-mashed meals. Seafood and prunes, dried apricots and raisins are considered to be very useful for the body during this period. Practice shows that such a diet improves the condition of patients.

    Extensive heart attack in men (the causes of its appearance have been described above) has serious consequences. If within a day after a heart attack the patient does not receive specialized care, then irreversible processes will occur. In addition, it can cause intractable pathological conditions.

    • arrhythmia
    • pulmonary edema,
    • myocardial rupture
    • pericarditis,
    • sometimes paralysis of limbs,
    • mental disorders,
    • blood clots,
    • heart block.

    Some of the disorders respond to medical or surgical correction. And irreversible consequences are cardiac arrest and death of the individual.

    How to recognize the first signs in time?

    Symptoms of myocardial infarction can be divided into two groups: early and late.
    Early symptoms occur a week before an acute circulatory disturbance in the heart muscle. Their peculiarity is that they are non-specific and can occur in diseases not related to the cardiovascular system.
    Therefore, patients often do not pay any attention to them, and this is a very big mistake, because according to statistics, with the development of the acute phase, more than 30% of people do not survive before the ambulance arrives.
    The first signs of a heart attack in men are as follows:

      Fatigue, severe weakness.

    Minor pain in the chest that is not associated with physical activity.

    Dizziness, to which nausea and vomiting may join.

    A condition similar to an acute viral infection - chills, muscle pain, aching bones.

    Mental disorder - anxiety, depressive mood, emotional instability.

    Pain in the lower jaw, neck, upper chest, the cause of which the patient can not explain.

    Respiratory failure after slight physical exertion.

    The acute phase of a heart attack (late symptoms) occurs when a blockage in the coronary vessel occurs and blood flow to the heart decreases. Most often, the symptoms are classic.

    The patient suddenly feels a strong, burning pain behind the sternum, which gives to the left side of the body (jaw, shoulder blade, arm). He begins to choke. Moreover, the appearance of these sensations is in no way associated with physical activity, pain is present and in a state of complete rest.
    For circulatory disorders, activation of the sympathetic nervous system is characteristic. Increased adrenaline rush leads to increased heart rate and a sharp increase in pressure. But the strength of the heart muscle is rapidly depleted, so the pulse and pressure drop, if you do not provide timely assistance.
    This is the classic course of a heart attack, which manifests itself in men 40 to 50 years old.
    But there are atypical cases of the disease. They are especially characteristic of young people aged 30 to 35 years.
    The main unusual symptoms are presented below:

      Aching, squeezing pain, which is similar to the "elephant sitting on the chest."

    Autonomic disorders - sweating, pallor of the skin of the trunk, dullness of the face, numbness of the limbs.

    Pain that radiates to the right side of the body.

    Sharp abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.

    Fear of impending death, panic attacks.

    Pain, which is mainly concentrated in the left biceps and shoulder.

    A sharp jump in pressure in people who have never suffered from hypertension.

    Occasionally, body temperature rises, rashes appear on the skin.

    Due to the abundance of a variety of symptoms, myocardial infarction is sometimes difficult to recognize. But the most dangerous asymptomatic form of the disease. Nothing bothers a person; he suffers a circulatory disorder literally on his feet.
    In such cases, the patient learns that he had a heart attack, only with the development of complications. This condition is most characteristic for patients older than 60 - 70 years. This is due to the fact that the elderly have reduced body reactivity and pain sensitivity.
    Another reason for the "silent" course of a heart attack is a blockage of a vessel of very small diameter, which supplies blood to a small area of ​​the heart wall. "Mini heart attacks" do not have serious consequences for the patient. The victim learns about him by accident when a scar is detected on a preventive electrocardiogram.
    It will also be useful to know that there are a number of factors that increase the likelihood of developing a heart attack.
    The main premises and their symptoms are presented in the table below:

    Heart attack in men: by what signs to recognize a problem

    Some dangerous conditions can be prevented if you catch on time. However, it often turns out that we cannot discern the formidable precursors of a particular disease, and even when a person is already completely ill, we risk rendering him not the help that is required.
    Cardiovascular diseases can lead to irreversible consequences if measures are not taken in time. Therefore, knowing the main characteristics and symptoms, we have a chance to save someone’s life - maybe a stranger who felt bad on the street, or maybe a loved one close to us.

    Conclusion

    After reading the article, you now know the causes of heart attack in men. Doctors are often asked how many such conditions a person can survive? There is no definite answer, everything is due to the individual characteristics of a particular person, and also depends on the number of vascular lesions of the heart. For example, with extensive pathology, usually no more than two attacks.

    It is especially difficult for young men to cope with the consequences. The reason is that in elderly patients a collateral blood flow forms, i.e., blood bypasses those vascular sites that were attacked as a result of a heart attack. Knowing the causes of a heart attack in men, pay attention to your lifestyle and get involved in the prevention of this terrible ailment.

    What is a heart attack?

    Myocardial infarction is the most common cardiovascular disease in Western Europe and the former Soviet Union. This is a damage to the heart muscle (actually the myocardium) due to a violation of the flow of blood through one of the coronary arteries. This happens because the vessel itself is clogged. The cholesterol plaque on its wall can grow for a long time, it is covered with a dense lid. After a certain amount of time, this lid breaks, closing the path along which blood flows. The result is myocardial infarction.
    This disease is a consequence of coronary heart disease (coronary heart disease), which manifests itself as a violation of the delivery of blood to the muscle. Many people, especially men, do not pay due attention to their own malaise, bringing the situation to a critical state. Myocardial infarction is an extreme, critical stage of the disease that can be prevented in advance, but it is difficult to do so at the last moment.

    Differences from symptoms in women

    The difference in heart attack symptoms in men and women is explained by different constitutional features and a hormonal background.

    The symptoms of the acute phase of the disease in most cases are similar for both sexes, with the exception of only some male features. But the early signs differ much more.

    The comparison is presented in this table:

    Early manifestations in womenEarly manifestations in men
    Heart rhythm disturbance: tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, extrasystoleSymptoms similar to acute viral infection
    Swelling in the lower extremitiesProlonged pressure increase
    Frequent and profuse urinationRespiratory distress
    Lingering depressionAnxiety, depression
    Numbness and pain in the left upper limbAching and dull chest pains

    At the same time, the first signs of myocardial ischemia in women arise already a month before the acute phase, and in men they can be seen a maximum of a week.

    It is characteristic that depressive disorders, mood swings and increased fatigue are 3-4 times more likely to occur in males.

    As for the asymptomatic, or mute course of this pathology, it happens in both women and men.

    Preventative measures

    It is necessary to monitor blood pressure, laboratory control of cholesterol. An important place is occupied by dietary nutrition and a healthy lifestyle, including the rejection of addictions (alcohol, smoking).

    Patients with a history of coronary artery disease have shown a good rest, exercise walking for training heart muscle.

    If you suspect a heart attack or pre-infarction, you can not hesitate, you need to call an ambulance, it is better to a specialized team, which should first make an ECG. What to do before the ambulance arrives will be discussed below. Of course, almost any doctor knows how to determine the pre-infarction state, the clinic plays an important role in the diagnosis, but changes in the ECG waves are crucial.

    In patients whose first attack of angina pectoris, the electrocardiogram will have changes in the form of displacement of segments, changes in the T wave, impaired conduction and heart rhythm. The cardiogram is especially important in the case of an atypical form of the pre-infarction state; extrasystoles, paroxysmal tachycardia and circulatory failure will be recorded on it.

    In order not to have to adhere to a specific regime after a heart attack, prophylaxis is necessary. The main preventive measure is the comprehensive elimination of adverse factors that trigger a heart attack. First, men need to eliminate alcohol and tobacco addiction, to avoid the harmful effects of psychoemotional stress.

    Regular physical activity, as practice shows, significantly reduces the possible development of myocardial necrosis. Therefore, anti-infarction prophylaxis includes everyday cardiac activities such as running or brisk walking, cycling or swimming. Training should last about half an hour, and it should be started at least 2 hours after a meal, and after it is not recommended to eat another half hour. Also, the prevention of myocardial necrosis involves controlling the level of sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol.

    How is first aid provided?

    First of all, if someone had a heart attack before your eyes or there is a suspicion of it, you need to call an ambulance.

    After this has been done, it is required to provide first aid first aid to the victim. The most important thing in this situation is not to succumb to panic and do everything in stages.

    For its most effective rendering, you need to know certain nuances that are presented in the corresponding table:

    Action algorithmImportant points
    Lay patientWhen laying the patient on the bed, it is necessary to put as many pillows under his head as possible. In fact, he should be half-sitting. This will facilitate the work of the heart muscle.
    Give nitroglycerin under the tongueIf the victim does have a heart attack, then one tablet will not relieve the pain.But do not immediately give one more! It is permissible to take a second nitrate tablet only after 15 minutes, since a drop in blood pressure is possible.
    Measure pressureThis is an important step that many people omit. If the pressure is lowered, giving another tablet of nitroglycerin is prohibited at all.
    Give acetylsalicylic acid tabletA 300 mg tablet must be chewed so that the effect appears as quickly as possible.
    Give a drink to reduce the acidity of the gastric juice: antihistamines, antacidsSince heart damage can mimic diseases of the stomach and intestines with the development of heartburn, abdominal pain, a simple method will distinguish these conditions from each other. If heartburn does not decrease after the pill, a heart attack is likely to occur.

    Possible consequences of a heart attack

    The consequences of this pathology, as well as its symptoms, are divided into two groups: early (acute) and late.

    Early occur immediately after a violation of blood flow in the coronary vessels, if timely therapy is not carried out.

    Most often observed:

    • Acute heart failure is a sudden inability of the heart muscle to provide blood to internal organs and tissues. Appears with a massive heart attack when a large area of ​​the myocardium dies.
    • Rupture of the wall of the heart - a thinned dead muscle is damaged and tears due to blood pressure on it.
    • Aneurysm of the vessel is a bag-like protrusion of its wall, which can also burst.
    • Arrhythmia - a violation of the rhythm of the heartbeat.
    • Pericarditis is an inflammation of the heart bag.
    • Thromboembolism - a blockage of a vessel with a thrombus detached from the heart cavity. As a result of this, the development of ischemic stroke of the brain (deterioration of blood flow in the cerebral arteries) is possible.

    The most common late complication of a heart attack is Dressler's syndrome - an autoimmune lesion of internal organs.

    Its main symptoms are:

    • Pericarditis is an inflammation of the outer lining of the heart.
    • Pleurisy - a lesion of the membrane covering the lungs.
    • Pneumonitis is an inflammatory process in the lung tissue.

    When pericarditis occurs, the patient feels pain behind the sternum, he has shortness of breath. You can see the swelling of the veins of the neck, an increase in the abdomen due to the accumulation of transudate in it, the asymmetry of the abdominal wall due to an increase in the liver.

    Symptoms of pleurisy include pain in the chest, decreased breathing, cyanosis of the skin.

    It is also possible the development of recurrent (up to two months) and re-infarction or myocardial infarction (after two months).

    Heartbreak

    Myocardial muscle hemorrhage symptoms are unobvious and fleeting. The people call the phenomenon of rupture of the heart. Its essence is as follows. The fact is that under the influence of ischemia, the area of ​​the organ tissue softens, and with a sharp increase in pressure, it can burst. Blood rushes into the hole that appears, which causes a sharp lack of blood flow, respectively, of oxygen and, in most cases, death.
    If there is a high risk of paralysis, a difficult or practically impossible rehabilitation, or disability during cerebral hemorrhage due to a rupture of a vessel (during a stroke), then, with a similar situation on the heart, the outcome, unfortunately, is almost always death.
    According to statistics, about half of people do not live up to the moment when they will be taken to the hospital. A third of those who were nevertheless delivered die before they can get help. Therefore, every second is important when deciding on a person’s life.

    What causes a heart attack?

    This critical condition, clogging of the vessel may be a consequence of the following conditions, factors and diseases:

    clotting problems

    plentiful fatty animal food,

    nicotine addiction

    a tumor of the heart muscle itself

    metastases of tumors of any organs,

    developmental abnormality or consequences of heart muscle surgery,

    Most causes of myocardial infarction can be warned in advance, but at the time of real danger it is important to think about what actions can save a person’s life.

    Gender factor

    The female body in reproductive age is reliably protected from a similar situation by hormones estrogen. This is necessary in order to bear and give birth to offspring, because when the heart stops and oxygen deficiency, the fetus dies in the womb. However, the causes of heart attack in men are always relevant. For women, this question raises up after the end of menopause. Estrogen runs low and ceases to protect against this scourge.

    How to recognize a heart attack?

    When a misfortune occurs with a person, often there is no physician nearby who can assess the situation from a professional point of view, immediately make the right decision and provide assistance. In the vast majority of cases, the signs of a heart attack in men are observed by relatives - mothers, wives, children, or completely unfamiliar passers-by on the street, who have nothing to do with medicine and especially cardiology.
    However, to assess the risk of external factors, to be safe, call an ambulance as soon as possible and even properly put in / out the patient is important to save his life.
    Symptoms of a heart attack in a man are not obvious. The only thing that can be said about this with a 100% guarantee is an electrocardiogram. But to make it on the street, in public transport, in the office or at home is impossible. Therefore, one has to pay attention to indirect symptoms of myocardial infarction.

      The starting point of the condition may be a nervous shock that a person has just experienced.

    Severe squeezing pain behind the sternum. It is not always localized in the region of the heart. Sensations can be given to the back, shoulder or arm, even to the jaw, to the stomach, usually on the left side of the body. The pain, when myocardial infarction began, is so severe that the use of narcotic painkillers is allowed.

    Fear of death, which covers a person, is associated with the previous sign. He becomes restless, does not understand what is happening around him, can rush around, try to go somewhere.

    Signs of myocardial infarction in men are a sticky cold sweat, rapid pulse and an earthy, grayish complexion.

    Nausea, weakness, a feeling of universal fatigue and inability to rise along with anxiety are characteristic of such a condition.

    Blood pressure jumps, and then drops or normalizes. Arrhythmia occurs.

    Signs of the prodromal stage

    Simply put, the manifestations that precede an approaching heart attack. Acute necrosis of cardiac structures in men and women develops in different ways, which is associated with hormonal features, hemodynamics.

    If the representatives of the weaker sex have a process stretched in time for weeks, there are cases when the indicators arose for a month, the stronger half have a maximum of 6-7 days. It happens that there is no prodrome at all.

    What signs should alert especially:

    • Shortness of breath after slight physical activity. Indicates that the heart can not cope with the load and is not able to provide the body, muscles, brain with an adequate amount of oxygen. It is considered a relatively late sign, exacerbated as the emergency state approaches.
    • Fatigue, weakness, drowsiness. I don’t feel like doing anything, and there’s no strength. Everything falls out of hand. When performing the usual actions there is increased fatigue, more efforts have to be made. The productivity of mental processes and thinking drops significantly. There is a feeling of body fatness, the unreality of everything that happens around.
    • Depression. Characteristic, early trait. If the classical clinical form of dysthymia occurs for a long time or is it preceded by some kind of traumatic situation, stress, then everything is spontaneous. There are no objective reasons.According to statistics, mental disorders of this kind in men are considered harbingers of heart attack 5 times more often than in women. It is not known whether this is a cause or a consequence.
    • Nausea, vomiting, digestive upsets. Violation of the digestive tract. Dyspeptic symptoms. Like heartburn, belching, increased intestinal gas formation. Possible constipation and diarrhea, alternating processes.
    • Bone ache, malaise is another harbinger of a heart attack, although not specific. All indications of influenza. Talks about ischemia of muscle fibers, insufficient metabolic rate. An alarming early sign, which is also not obvious, it is difficult to link it with a future heart attack.
    • Dizziness. Inability to navigate in space. Talks about a violation of the supply of cerebral structures, nerve tissues in general. It develops at one moment, lasts from a couple of minutes to an hour. Attacks occur repeatedly over a short period. Including one day in difficult situations.
    • Chest pain. Dull, crushing. Less often burning. An insignificant time continues, therefore, it is not possible to react immediately. Gives to the jaw, left arm, shoulder blade, back, teeth, face, stomach. It is difficult to reconcile pain and heart attack. It disguises itself well as discomfort in the digestive tract.
    • Unexplained violation of erectile function and sexual desire. It occurs spontaneously, manifests itself as the inability to achieve persistent potency or impaired ejaculation already during sexual intercourse.

    Specific studies by the andrologist show a pronounced deviation of the organic plan. If you carry out a penile tumescence test, dopplerography with provocation of an erection, an insufficient filling of the cavernous bodies with blood is detected due to weak arterial blood flow.

    • Violation of attention, thinking, memory. Cognitive and mnestic functions. Absent-mindedness, inability to concentrate on an object or thing.

    The duration of the prodromal period is about 4 days, sometimes less. The first signs of a heart attack in men (precursors) are nonspecific, occur from the cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive systems, and mental activity.

    Symptoms of the acute stage

    Actually an emergency condition develops in a matter of hours. The first sign of a heart attack in men and the most characteristic is acute, intense pain in the chest. Where exactly the patient can not show. Only an approximate area.

    Possible return (reflection) of discomfort in the abdomen, cheekbones, teeth, left arm, collarbone, scapula or back in general. As necrosis progresses, the symptom disappears, wanes. There comes a period of false well-being.

    A variant with “medium” pain is possible, but it lasts over 30 minutes. Duration that passes for half an hour is the main sign that distinguishes a heart attack from angina pectoris.

    • Dyspnea. Inability to take air. The intensification of pulmonary activity does not make sense. Violation occurs due to a decrease in cardiac output in a large circle of blood circulation. Bodies simply lack nutrients and oxygen. This is a compensatory mechanism, but it is obviously flawed. In addition to discomfort, it does not give anything. After the onset of a heart attack, dyspnea accompanies the patient at rest, intensifies against the background of minimal physical activity. Changes in body position, walking and other moments.
    • Pallor of the skin. As a result of reflex stenosis of the capillary network. There is a violation of the peripheral current of liquid tissue, nutrition. Hence the change in the shade of the dermis. A man looks like a wax figure. Rubbing, physical methods of exposure have no effect.
    • Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle. The expressed blue around a mouth, lips. The color of the nail plates, mucous membranes also changes, especially a violation of pigmentation of the gums due to weakening of blood flow, vasospasm.
    • Mental disorders of a transient nature.First, a panic attack. Strong fear, does not recede even after relief, psychomotor agitation, increased motor activity. The patient does not sit in one place. He is anxious, rushing around. May be dangerous to yourself.

    Then comes the stupor. The man is lethargic, does not respond to external stimuli, is silent. Depending on the type of personality, a heart attack can start with a mental “stagnation”.

    • Loss of consciousness. Neurological sign. Indicates insufficient blood circulation in the brain. It is isolated rarely. It is in combination with other signs.
      Such as a headache, vertigo. The discomfort is pressing, pulling, localized in the back of the head, crown, temporal region. Bales, knocks, pulsates to the beat of the heart. Additionally, disorientation occurs in space due to dizziness.
    • Nausea and vomiting. Parts of one whole. Signs are reflex in nature. Disturbed nutrition of special centers of the brain. Ischemia entails the generation of chaotic signals. Gastric emptying episodes do not end in relief as in poisoning. This is a reflex, and it occurs even with an empty gastrointestinal tract, regardless of food intake.
    • Arrhythmia. Tachycardia, then reduction of the frequency of contractions to the level of 40-50 beats per minute.

    A typical clinical picture is observed in 87-89% of cases.

    The process is less active and aggressive, compared with the option for women, less likely to end in death, even in the most difficult situations.

    Consequences and forecasts

    Most of the deaths with myocardial infarction occur during the first day. With the defeat of 50% of the heart muscle, the heart can no longer fully function and the patient develops cardiogenic shock and a fatal outcome occurs. In some cases, and with less extensive myocardial lesions, the heart cannot cope with the arising loads and the patient develops acute heart failure, which can cause death. Also, an unfavorable prognosis of the outcome of the disease can be observed with a complicated course of myocardial infarction.

    The severity of the clinical picture in the first days after a heart attack is determined by the vastness of the zone of myocardial damage, the reactivity of the nervous system and the initial state of the heart muscle. The most dangerous and prognostically severe are the first 3 days of the disease, and it is during this period that maximum attention is required from the doctor and medical personnel.

    In the early days, the patient may develop such severe complications:

    • pulmonary edema
    • collapse,
    • extrasystole,
    • paroxysmal, atrial or signs of sinus tachycardia,
    • ventricular fibrillation
    • pulmonary embolism,
    • intracardiac thrombosis,
    • thromboembolism of blood vessels of the brain, kidneys, etc.,
    • heart tamponade
    • cardiogenic shock
    • thromboendocarditis,
    • acute heart aneurysm,
    • extensive pericarditis.

    The next 2 weeks after a heart attack are quite dangerous. After the expiration of the acute period, the prognosis for the patient's recovery becomes more favorable.

    According to statistics, before the hospitalization of the patient, a fatal outcome during the first hour with myocardial infarction is observed in about 30% of cases. Death in a hospital within 28 days occurs in 13-28% of patients, and death in the first year after a heart attack occurs in 4-10% (in patients over 65 years of age - 35%) cases.

    What to do

    Male myocardial infarction differs from female in its transience. Representatives of the stronger sex almost never experience a pre-infarction state - the situation is developing rapidly, over several tens of minutes. However, pain behind the sternum and growing anxiety, combined with an incomprehensible fear, should alert and suggest that these are the first signs of a heart attack in men.
    If before your eyes a person becomes restless, breathing heavily and turns pale, clutching at his heart, the following algorithm of actions should be taken.

      Calm down, make it clear that you will help, do not leave him alone.

    Call an ambulance or arrange transportation of a person to the nearest hospital.

    Put a man by placing something soft under his head. If shortness of breath is observed, it is better to plant it, freeing the feet from shoes, the neck from a tie or scarf. Unfasten the collar of the shirt, belt. In no case do not let a person stay on his feet.

    Put one tablet of nitroglycerin under the tongue. The following can be given only after 15 minutes, more than three can not be consumed in any case. This drug reduces pressure and alleviates pain, but if you overdo it, you can only aggravate the situation. Hypotension - low pressure - is determined by pale skin and pronounced weakness of the pulse. In this situation, nitroglycerin should not be given at all.

    Half an aspirin tablet is a necessary help in this situation. This drug dilutes the blood, somewhat normalizes the patient's condition.

    If the pulse is lost and the person is unconscious, artificial respiration will help, however, if you know how to use it. Experimenting in this situation is not worth it.

    If there are signs of a heart attack in men, first aid should be urgent. Many strive to give a person valocordin. However, this remedy will not improve the condition, the only thing it can do is to calm down the anxiety somewhat.
    If the patient managed to be delivered to the hospital, he is sent to the intensive care unit. There, with the help of special technologies, the formed thrombus is dissolved, after which a thorough check of the coronary vessels is carried out and further preventive and reconstructive treatment is prescribed.
    Rehabilitation of the patient takes quite a long time (several weeks), doctors insist on bed rest, rest and rest.
    Violation of the recommendations threatens with a further deterioration. Only with the permission of the attending cardiologist is it possible to gradually return to work, sport, active life.
    It is important to remember that by providing assistance with a heart attack, you do not just alleviate a person’s condition. You save his life with your competent and prompt actions. In this regard, it is very important to know the rules of first aid!

    Symptoms and signs of a heart attack in men, its consequences

    A heart attack is a dangerous exacerbation of ischemia, which is characterized by necrosis of the heart muscle. In women and men, the disease proceeds differently, which is associated with structural features of the body. What are the prerequisites, symptoms and characteristics of the disease in males? We will provide answers to these questions in the article.

    Asthmatic view

    • Pronounced choking. This is not an acceleration of the process, but the inability to gain air as a result of spasm of the paths, trachea and bronchi. It also gives neurological symptoms: darkening in the eyes, dizziness, fainting conditions. All signs of acute cerebral ischemia. May result in a stroke. Need urgent help to restore gas exchange.
    • Inability to lie for the same reason.
    • Hoarse, wheezing. Hubble in the chest. Symptom of developing pulmonary edema.
    • Cough unproductive. Without sputum. Perhaps with blood, but not immediately. A few hours later.
    • Pain in the chest is completely absent.

    Abdominal form

    Gives signs of an acute abdomen. Falsely prompts doctors to think about appendicitis, colitis, perforation of the intestinal wall, obstruction, other conditions, up to peritonitis.

    • Abdominal pain is unbearable, pressing or cutting.
    • The forced position of the body in this regard, to alleviate discomfort.
    • Nausea, vomiting.
    • Pallor, hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).
    • Decrease or increase in body temperature.

    The picture is so convincing that even experienced professionals need time for differential diagnosis. Specific tests - Shchetkina-Blumberg, Lenander and others are negative. What gives food for thought. Ultrasound also does not show changes.

    The patient is transported to a cardiology hospital. It is possible to suspect something was amiss by characteristic features:

    • There are also chest pains. With an acute abdomen, this is not.
    • Instability of cardiac activity is observed.
    • Blood pressure is unstable.
    • A history of cardiovascular disorders.

    Causes

    Men are more likely to develop a heart attack. In women, before the onset of menopause, CVS is supported by the hormone estrogen, which is why heart attacks in their young age are much less common.
    The main reason for the development of a heart attack is obstruction of the coronary vessels and the cessation of blood flow.
    If blood does not enter the heart, cells do not receive oxygen and nutrients. Such conditions lead to the death of cardiomyocytes. The longer the heart is under hypoxia, the more cells die.
    The reasons that lead to obstruction of the coronary vessels are different. In men, this is most often:

      Atherosclerosis of blood vessels. This is a disease characterized by deposition of cholesterol in the vascular cavity. At a certain stage of the disease, an atherosclerotic plaque appears, narrowing the lumen. If the plaque is localized in the coronary arteries, this can cause a heart attack. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of pathology in men over 60 years of age.

  • The presence of a blood clot. A blood clot in the coronary arteries can also be the cause of their obstruction. The cause of blood clots is increased blood clotting. This is characteristic of varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis.
  • Spasm of the vessels of the heart
    Embolism. Embolism is a condition characterized by blockage of a vessel by a substrate having a different localization. For example, if a blood clot formed in the veins of the lower extremities, but got into the vessels of the heart. An embolus can be not only blood clots, but also air bubbles, drops of fat.

    Spasm of the vessels. Prolonged spasm leads to narrowing of the arteries. With a significant decrease in clearance, a heart attack may develop. This condition develops more often in young men.

    Various diseases, bad habits, and the wrong lifestyle can lead to such conditions. Most often, the occurrence of a heart attack is immediately associated with several provoking factors. The provoking factors of male heart attack include:

      high blood pressure

    eating large amounts of fats, simple carbohydrates,

    sedentary lifestyle,

    age (in older people, the risk of developing the disease is much higher),

    First signs

    Signs of a heart attack in men can occur both suddenly and after a period of latent manifestations. In some cases, the symptoms of the disease occur against the background of complete well-being. In this case, it is impossible to suspect the occurrence of a heart attack, no previous symptoms indicate a heart lesion. The disease begins acutely, immediately with the main signals.
    In other cases, before the appearance of the main signs of the disease, there is a previous period. Symptoms in this period are nonspecific, they are easily confused with the manifestations of another pathology. The harbingers of a heart attack in men can be as follows:

    discomfort in the sternum,

    heaviness in the sternum,

    feeling of fear, anxiety,

    dizziness, darkening in the eyes,

    drawing pain in left arm, back of neck.

    The occurrence of these symptoms is an indication for further examination. Be sure to consult your doctor to diagnose the condition. It is necessary to carry out auscultation of the heart, remove the electrocardiogram. You may need to use laboratory methods (for example, a troponin test).

    Acute symptoms

    Clinical symptoms of a heart attack occur acutely, often suddenly. The main manifestation of the disease is pain in the heart. It has the following characteristics:

      lasts more than 20-30 minutes,

    radiates to the left hand, neck, scapular region,

    sharp, burning, compressive in nature.

    An attack of pain is also accompanied by additional symptoms:

      tachycardia - increased heart rate,

    decrease in blood pressure (however, at the beginning it may sharply increase),

    redness of the skin in the face,

    shortness of breath: it becomes difficult to breathe, there is a feeling of lack of air.

    If these symptoms appear, you should immediately call an ambulance or consult your doctor. The sooner drug treatment begins, the greater the chances of survival and the absence of consequences.
    Unfortunately, a heart attack is not always accompanied by typical symptoms. An atypical course of the disease is sometimes possible. In such cases, it is very difficult to suspect a disease; according to clinical indicators, a heart attack resembles many other heart diseases.
    The abdominal form of a heart attack manifests itself as a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The pain in this case is localized not behind the sternum, but in the abdomen. The abdominal form often occurs with damage to the right coronary artery.

    Abdominal type of pathology
    The painless form has no clinical manifestations at all. This greatly complicates the diagnosis of the disease. This form develops mainly in men with diabetes.

    First aid methods

    To avoid complications and death, it is necessary to provide first aid in time. Early diagnosis and initiation of therapy are the main conditions for effective treatment. Before proceeding with the assistance, be sure to call an ambulance. The first emergency measures can be taken at home. Non-drug methods are as follows:

    Lay the patient on a hard surface, lifting the upper body.

    Unfasten the shirt, remove the squeezing clothes.

    Provide access to fresh air. Open the windows, ventilate the room.

    If the patient is conscious, try to calm him down. You can give warm tea to drink, cover with a blanket.

    Further help is with medication. With a heart attack, you need to use the following groups of drugs:

    Antiplatelet agents. They allow you to stop the growth of a blood clot and, thus, prevent the progression of necrosis of the heart muscle. If you suspect a heart attack, you need to take 2 tablets of Acetylsalicylic acid.

    Painkillers. They reduce pain, prevent the development of pain shock. Better use paracetamol or narcotic analgesics. If these drugs are not at hand, then non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be used. Any analgesic should be taken: Paracetamol, Analgin, Ibuprofen, Nimesil.
    Nitrates. Expand blood vessels, thus protecting against the spread of necrosis. Every 15 minutes you need to take Nitroglycerin (no more than three in a row).

    AMI nitrates
    Further treatment should be carried out in a hospital setting.

    Rehabilitation

    Myocardial infarction often leads to disability or even death. After intensive treatment, a period of rehabilitation begins. It is important for the normal restoration of the function of the cardiovascular system and human adaptation to life after a heart attack. Rehabilitation consists in physiotherapy exercises, proper nutrition, and rejection of bad habits.

    Lifestyle

    After a heart attack, it is very important to reconsider your lifestyle. This affects not only the course of the rehabilitation period. The introduction of new good habits and the rejection of harmful ones helps prevent the development of subsequent heart attacks. According to statistics, the risk of death with each subsequent heart attack increases several times.
    How should life after a heart attack change? Follow these guidelines:

    Give up bad habits. This is especially true for smoking and drinking alcohol.

    Limit your caffeine intake. Drink no more than 2 cups of coffee per day. You can switch to decaffeinated coffee, replace the drink with more useful one (for example, chicory).

    Walk more. Walking helps strengthen the heart and blood vessels.

    Sleep for at least 7-8 hours.

    Give up your abnormal working day. Rest should be full.

    Exercise at least 30 minutes a day. It is not necessary to choose running or athletics. Choose a sport based on individual characteristics. You can do yoga, hiking, swimming, dancing.

    Be sure to undergo preventive medical examinations, which men are extremely reluctant to do. It is recommended to visit a doctor at least once every six months. This allows you to identify pathology at an early stage, and prevent the development of necrosis.
    Another prerequisite for the rehabilitation period is the treatment of concomitant diseases. This is especially true for arterial hypertension and thrombosis. Some medications may be needed for life. For example, drugs with antihypertensive effect, Aspirin, nitrates. The medication regimen should be prescribed by the attending physician individually.
    Proper nutrition is another condition of the rehabilitation period. The diet after the disease should comply with the following principles:

      Keep a minimum amount of salt.

    Exclude the use of fatty meats. It is allowed to eat poultry, beef, veal. It is better to refuse the use of pork.

    There must be fish in the diet. It is a source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    Contain a sufficient amount of healthy fats. They are found in vegetable oils, seeds, and nuts.

    The daily diet should cover the need for vitamins and minerals. This is especially true for potassium and magnesium, which favorably affect the work of the heart. Trace elements found in potatoes, bananas.

    Food is better to eat in small amounts, but often. Fractional nutrition is suitable 5-6 times a day (3 main meals and several snacks).

    Arrhythmic form

    Recognized easier. There is usually no pain syndrome either, or it is so meager that it does not attract attention. But there are obvious violations of the myocardial contractility:

    • Sensation of pressure in the chest, passing strikes, slowing down, stopping.
    • Sweating.
    • Impaired consciousness.

    The arrhythmic form of a heart attack more often than others provokes a stroke and occurs in men over 60 years of age. A parallel course of emergency conditions - necrosis of brain tissue and heart attack gives a worse prognosis. Therefore, at the first signs of a violation, you need to call an ambulance.

    How to distinguish heart pain from another

    On-site demarcation is possible, but only approximately. It is worth paying attention to the nature of pain, intensity, prescription, other manifestations.

    • Cardiac discomfort does not change properties when standing up, bending, deep breathing, coughing, sneezing. Perhaps an increase in the background of physical activity, stress. Nitroglycerin is well stopped, but if you suspect it is not recommended to drink it without the sanction of doctors.
    • Choking is an atypical sign of a heart attack. If arrhythmias are equally present, the cause is precisely in the heart.
      Discomfort in the abdomen also rarely gives cardiac symptoms, manifestations from the nervous system.

    Forecast and consequences

    The prognosis for male heart attack depends on the size of the focus of necrosis, the timeliness of the start of treatment and the general condition of the body. With extensive necrosis, the presence of concomitant diseases, the prognosis is poor. The disease is accompanied by severe heart failure, often fatal.

    With early diagnosis and treatment initiation, the prognosis is relatively favorable. Subject to medical advice, clinical recovery is possible. However, the consequences in the form of connective tissue scar remain for life. In the future, this can provoke a decrease in heart function, the development of arrhythmia.
    Myocardial infarction in men is a dangerous pathology that can lead to various complications, disability and death. It is possible to prevent adverse effects if symptoms of the disease are identified in time and seek medical help. An important role in the outcome of the disease is played by the rehabilitation period.

    The clinical picture of the acute period

    The total duration of a heart attack is from 8 to 24 hours. Then comes the stagnation of the condition and a gradual regression, recovery or death of the patient from the developed complications.

    Help should be started early: up to 6 hours. At the end, the moment is called late or acute. 12-18 hours - subacute. Therefore, signs in the range of 6 to 12 hours are considered.

    The picture is blurred, although typical moments are still present:

    • The pain becomes weak, burning, pressing. Passes or remains to a small extent. This is good only under the condition of the therapy. If there was no medical intervention, the risk of extensive necrosis and death of nerve endings is great.
    • Arrhythmia is a type of bradycardia. Heart rate reduction to 40 beats per minute. In critical situations even lower.
    • Drowsiness, weakness. Loss of consciousness. Deep fainting. In some cases, they can turn into coma. Death is not far off, cerebral structures do not receive nutrients and oxygen. Go into the phase of saving, "conservation". Getting a person out of this situation is not easy, sometimes impossible at all.
    • Pallor of the skin.
    • Lack of urination. Oliguria. A bad sign indicates a violation of the filtering function of the kidneys. Fluid retention, an increase in the volume of circulating blood makes the heart work with a heavy load. A favorable sign is the beginning of an abundant discharge of urine after a heart attack. This is evidence of the normal functioning of the excretory tract.
    • Coughing up blood. Without sputum, mucous exudate.
    • Mild headaches, vertigo.
    • General lethargy, lethargy. Indifference to everything around, a slight reaction to stimuli from the outside. The psychiatric status is abnormal, indicating a decrease in activity.

    Perhaps a spontaneous cessation of heart rate, asystole. Calmness of the patient, the absence of complaints does not mean normal. Rather, the severity of the condition.

    Only in the case of a microinfarction is an independent reverse development of the process possible without dire consequences. And that is not always the case.

    How to help at home?

    It is completely impossible to do this. Immediately after the onset of signs, even remotely resembling necrosis, you need to call an ambulance.

    It is impossible to recognize a heart attack with 100% accuracy on your own, but you need to report suspicions to the dispatcher dispatcher, this will help orient doctors, they will arrive faster.

    Before arrival, the emergency help algorithm is as follows:

    • Open a window, a window to ensure normal ventilation of the room. This is necessary to partially compensate for hypoxia. If you continue to sit in a high concentration of CO2, the likelihood of a stroke increases, as does the aggravation of cardiac necrosis itself.
    • Sit down, do not move once again.
    • Keeping calm. Pull yourself together. Panic attack, fear - normal behavioral reactions. But they are redundant. Since the violation of the emotional background also has a physical plane: cortisol, adrenaline is produced. Blood pressure and heart rate are growing. This is dangerous.
    • Loosen tight collar. Remove cross, chain, body jewelry. Pressure on the carotid sinus, which is located near the carotid artery, will lead to a decrease in the frequency of contractions of the heart and will provoke death.
    • Lower legs and arms.Do not move your limbs so as not to disturb the already fragile hemodynamics.

    Upon arrival of the medical team to tell about the condition, not to hide anything. Briefly and to the point.

    It is advisable to inform relatives or friends about your situation. Ideal if someone is nearby. He will help open the door to the brigade, will provide first aid if necessary.

    What absolutely can not be done

    • Move, exercise. With a slightly symptomatic course of the pathological process, not quite adequate patient behavior is possible. Any loads are excluded.
    • Wash my face. At all. Reflex vasoconstriction can lead to cardiac arrest. The expansion will result in increased peripheral blood flow and inadequate nutrition of the brain and the myocardium itself.
    • Drink medicine. Even Nitroglycerin, if this possibility was not agreed with the doctor. The action of the drug revealed the reverse side. Against the background of acute processes, it entails malnutrition of the myocardium, increases the risk of death.
    • Go to the bath, shower.
    • Try to cope on your own. No chance. The help of a doctor, most likely hospitalization, is vital.
    • Take food. Possible loss of consciousness and vomiting. Aspiration, asphyxiation, death.
    • Go to bed. Gas exchange will weaken, which will lead to even greater necrosis.

    Symptoms of a heart attack in men develop in a matter of minutes (excluding the prodrome). They are quite characteristic, but the last word for the doctors.

    Calling an ambulance increases the chances of survival and full recovery. It is advisable that treatment begin within the first 4-6 hours. The outcome is maximally favorable, and then falls in proportion to the time lost.

    Watch the video: Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack Ischemia Pathophysiology, ECG, Nursing, Signs, Symptoms Part 1 (February 2020).